Escherichia coli

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General pages




  • In an Escherichia coli cell, 1 molecule per cell is approximately equal to 1nM.


    • A community annotation site for E. coli K-12. Includes its phages, plasmids, genes, strains and databases.
  • Escherichia coli statistics by Institute for Biomolecular Design
    • Several tables describing statistical data on E. coli compiled from several sources.
  • EcoSal by ASM Press
    • An incomplete web version of the publication Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. [Subscription required]
  • EcoGene
    • Database of all E. coli genes and sequences
  • Ecocyc
    • Comprehensive biochemical pathway and gene function site for E. coli


  1. Cohen SN, Chang AC, and Hsu L. Nonchromosomal antibiotic resistance in bacteria: genetic transformation of Escherichia coli by R-factor DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972 Aug;69(8):2110-4. DOI:10.1073/pnas.69.8.2110 | PubMed ID:4559594 | HubMed [Cohen-PNAS-1972]

    This appears to be one of the earliest papers on transformation of Escherichia coli. If you find an earlier paper, please include it here.