Carolyne week 4

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The purpose of this project is to learn myths about corruption and prioritizing prevention as a better mode of combating AIDS that impact the fight against AIDS around the globe. Particular attention is paid to developing countries affected by AIDS since these myths are used to critique efforts to fight HIV/ADIS in those countries.


The protocol for this project comes from the Week 4 Assignment Page. All of the information in the following outline comes from the book Global AIDS: Myths and Facts by Irwin et. al. (2003).

MYTH THREE: Corruption

  1. Anti-corruption efforts are gaining support and people are determining how to efficiently use resources to promote AIDS control, so withholding money from poor countries based on corruption is a wrong approach.
  2. Officials in the US, Europe, and Asia contribute to corruption by bribing foreign officials, showing corruption is not just a problem for poor countries.
  3. Through activism, civil society groups, and the use of the internet to share government information, common people have pushed for greater transparency in countries where corruption is commonplace.
  4. The success of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) in South Africa has inspired the creation of other civil societies that can hold those providing AIDS relief accountable, which will help to make AIDS prevention programs more effective.
  5. Various international organizations are implementing ways to monitor the use of resources to fight AIDS and make sure people are held accountable.
  6. One strategy that the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria is used to fight corruption is demanding rigorous documentation of proposed anti-corruption measures, a third-party monitor, and the participation of multiple stakeholder groups.
  7. Despite corruption, Uganda, Thailand, and Brazil were all able to have successful programs to address HIV/AIDS, showing corruption doesn't necessarily prevent the fight against AIDS.
  8. By carrying out a large public health campaign to address and prevent HIV transmission, Thailand was able to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission despite government corruption.
  9. Uganda was able to successfully address the challenge posed by AIDS by working with religious leaders, community leaders, NGOs, health officials, and political leaders to create an effective public health campaign.
  10. Donors and rich countries can aid in the fight against AIDS by partnering with health NGOs, the public, and civil society groups that are fighting corruption while trying to ensure AIDS programs are successful.

MYTH FOUR: Prevention vs. Treatment?

  1. Intially, the fight against AIDS focused on preventing new infections because there was no effective treatment against HIV/AIDS.
  2. The unaffordable cost of antiretroviral drugs means that over 90% of those with HIV/AIDS in developing countries do not have access to those drugs, while those with HIV/AIDS in rich countries do have access to those drugs.
  3. The exclusion of treatment options for those with HIV/AIDS in poorer countries goes against principles of equity and human rights since they would be left without hope and left to die.
  4. To remedy the injustice that currently exists around AIDS treatment, the voices of those in developing countries that have the disease must be listened to and be a part of important policy and funding decisions.
  5. Since prevention programs are not adequately supported, their effectiveness is limited and their implementation has not stopped the transmission of HIV.
  6. In areas where the HIV epidemic affects the general population, preventing new infections is largely impossible and even the best-designed prevention campaigns do not reduce transmission rates to zero (ex. Uganda)
  7. One of the most effective strategies in the fight against AIDS has been voluntary testing and counseling, which allows people who are HIV positive or HIV negative to feel supported when it is implemented correctly.
  8. Linking voluntary counseling and testing with access to ARVs can help people to accept counseling and testing and reduce HIV stigma.
  9. When politicians have living people that they can claim to have helped, they may be more likely to support treatment programs.
  10. Ending the injustice that permeates AIDS treatment can help to end other injustices present in the global health system.


The purpose of this project was to understand the myths surrounding corruption, prevention, and treatment that make it difficult to secure donor support to fight AIDS across the globe. While many believe that corruption will stall AIDS efforts, local activists, NGOs, and civil society groups have utilized internet technologies and other strategies to hold leaders accountable. Similarly, making sure all communities affected by HIV/AIDS around the globe have equal access to treatment and preventive care can ensure that global health disparities are not exacerbated and hope remains in areas hardest hit by HIV/AIDS.

Modified Research Question

When looking at subjects that had similar changes in their slope of divergence, what kind of viral sequence differences exist in nonprogressor, moderate progressor, and rapid professor groups?


I worked with Nathan in class to refine my research question from week three. I used and modified the protocol from the BIOL368/S20:Week 4 assignment page. I also copied the reference format for the class journal for this week from the Week 4 page. Except for what is noted above, this individual journal entry was completed by me and not copied from another source. Carolyne (talk) 23:09, 12 February 2020 (PST)


  1. Irwin, A. C., Fallows, D., & Millen, J. V. (2003). Global Aids: myths and facts. Cambridge, Mass: South End Press.
  2. OpenWetWare. (2020). BIOL368/S20:Week 4. Retrieved February 12, 2020, from
  3. Aspinall, P. J. (2005). The operationalization of race and ethnicity concepts in medical classification systems: issues of validity and utility. Health Informatics Journal, 11(4), 259-274. DOI: 10.1177/1460458205055688
  4. Bodenreider, O., & Stevens, R. (2006). Bio-ontologies: current trends and future directions. Briefings in bioinformatics, 7(3), 256-274. DOI: 10.1093/bib/bbl027
  5. Noble, S. U. (2018). Algorithms of oppression: How search engines reinforce racism. NYU Press, Chapter 5: The Future of Knowledge in the Public, LMU eBook

User Page and Template Links

Individual Journal Pages

  1. Carolyne week 2
  2. Carolyne week 3
  3. Carolyne week 4
  4. Carolyne week 5
  5. Carolyne week 6
  6. Carolyne week 8
  7. Carolyne week 9
  8. Carolyne week 10
  9. Carolyne week 11
  10. Carolyne week 13
  11. Carolyne week 14

Weekly Assignments

  1. BIOL368/S20:Week 1
  2. BIOL368/S20:Week 2
  3. BIOL368/S20:Week 3
  4. BIOL368/S20:Week 4
  5. BIOL368/S20:Week 5
  6. BIOL368/S20:Week 6
  7. BIOL368/S20:Week 8
  8. BIOL368/S20:Week 9
  9. BIOL368/S20:Week 10
  10. BIOL368/S20:Week 11
  11. BIOL368/S20:Week 13
  12. BIOL368/S20:Week 14

Class Journal Pages

  1. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 1
  2. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 2
  3. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 3
  4. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 4
  5. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 5
  6. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 6
  7. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 8
  8. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 9
  9. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 10
  10. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 11
  11. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 13
  12. BIOL368/S20:Class Journal Week 14