Samantha M. Hurndon Week 2

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  • My partner and I conducted an experiment on the program Aupotu in which we inquired the evolution of genotypes in a population.


  1. Part One: Selecting for Red
    • We began by looking at Natural Selection in the absence of mutation. For our experiment we only looked at red and white colored flowers (R = Red and r= white)
    • Our first step was to enable the mutations, which would be found under preferences the file button.
    • We then selected for red colored flowers by first adding both white and red flowers from the greenhouse to the world with a 50:50 ratio.
    • To select for red we set the fitness of red to 10 and the rest to 0.
    • After going about that, we clicked the one-generation button in the controls and recorded the information.
    • We then ran the generation button a few more times and observed results.
  2. Part Two: Selecting for White
    • After the selection for red we then selected for white by increasing whites fitness to 10 and reds to 0. We then recorded the results after hitting the generation button.
    • We hit the generation button as many times as it took till the world was only white flowers
  3. Part Three: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
    • We then went on to examine the correlation of this experiment and the hardy-weinberg equilibrium.
    • We did this by selecting only red for the world settings and checking the show colors of both alleles box in preferences.
    • We then set all fitness’s to 5 to see if the population was at Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.
    • Our next step was to calculate the allele frequencies in the starting population as well as the genotype frequencies.
    • We then ran one generation to see if the population was at HWE.
    • Following that we then set out fitness settings for red, by increasing red to 10 and all other colors to 0 and then running generations.


  1. When selecting for Red:
    • We predicted that the number of white flowers would eventually, after several generations, wipe out.
    • We found that after one generation there were 28 whites and 72 reds, after 2 generations there were 8 whites and 92 reds. When we got to the fourth generation all follower colors were red. This is because our fitness level for red was set the maximum. Therefore, the red color will be able to thrive. Red being the dominant allele can be heterogynous or homozygous, however, eventually all phenotypes will be red.
  2. When selecting for white:
    • We predicted that after a few generations the red color would wipe out.
    • We found that after only one generation all followers were white. This is because the fitness for white was set to the maximum and because white is recessive it can not contain any red alleles.
  3. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium & Natural Selection
    • We found that the starting population was in they HWE because p+q was equaled to one.
    • We then tested for the HWE after one generation had been ran and found that it was in fact at HWE. (See calculations for proof).
    • After setting the fitness settings to select for red we predicted that red will eventually take over because we set its fitness to the maximum.
    • Our calculations indicated that our prediction was correct because p is 94% and q is only 6%.

Calculations & Answered Questions


It was seen that when fitness levels were high for the more dominant allele the longer it took for the population to become pure for that specific allele. On the contrary, when fitness levels were high for recessive alleles, the generation became pure recessive much more quickly.

Interesting Links

  1. Without Borders
  2. Refugees
  3. Operating Room Live

Bioinformatics Individual Journal Entries

Week 2: Aipotu Evolution

Week 3: HIV Evolution

Week 3: Journal Club

Week 4: Group project

Week 5: Group project

Week 6: DNA Glycosylase Exercise

Week 7: Journal Club

Week 8: Amino Acids Tools

Week9: Amino Acid Sequences/Presentation

Week 10: DNA Microarray Introduction

Samantha M. Hurndon Week 11: Week 11: DNA Microarray Journal Club

Samantha M. Hurndon Week 12: DNA Microarray project

Samanhta M. Hurndon Week 14: Final Project

Class Assignments

Biol 368 Homepage

BIOL368/F11:Week 1

BIOL368/F11:Week 2

BIOL368/F11:Week 3

BIOL368/F11:Week 4

BIOL368/F11:Week 5

BIOL368/F11:Week 6

BIOL368/F11:Week 7

BIOL368/F11:Week 8

BIOL368/F11:Week 9

BIOL368/F11:Week 10

BIOL368/F11:Week 11

BIOL368/F11:Week 12

Class Journals

Class Journal Week 1

Class Journal Week 2

Class Journal Week 3

Class Journal Week 4

Class Journal Week 5

Class Journal Week 6

Class Journal Week 7

Class Journal Week 8

Class Journal Week 9

Class Journal Week 10

Class Journal Week 11

Class Journal Week 12