Lurbinah Week 2

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Lizzy Urbina



Weekly Assigments

Class Journal Assigments


  • Examine the color of the flower is determined and affected by the structure of the protein and amino acid sequence.

Combined Methods/Results

A) Which proteins are found in each of the four starting organisms?

  • Green-1
    • has two green-pigmented proteins
  • Green-2
    • Has one blue-pigmented protein and one yellow-pigmented protein
  • Red
    • one red-pigmented protein
  • White
    • Has two white-pigmented proteins


C) What features of a protein make it colored?

The amino acids that make up the protein have to be placed in a specific position so that the aromatic amino acids have the proper resonance interaction with other amino acids. The different interactions in the process of folding the protein results in a specific structure; a functional protein.

D) What features of the amino acid sequence make a protein a particular color?

Certain amino acids must be in a specific position as follows:

  • Red=> Phe and Cys in fourth and third position from the right

  • Green=> Tyr and Trp in the fourth and third position from the right

  • Yellow=> Trp in the fourth position from the right.

  • Blue=> Val, Try, and Cys in the fifth, fourth and third position from the right

  • Orange=> Phe and Trp in the fourth and third position from the right

  • Purple=> Tyr and Phe in the fourth and third position from the right

  • Black=> Tyr, Trp, and Phe in the fifth, fourth and third from the right.
  • White=> Val, Cys, in the fourth and third position from the right

E)How do the colors combine to produce an overall color? How does this explain the genotype-phenotype rules you found in part (I)?

Proteins with different colors are expressed, however, the interaction of these could give a different overall color. This relates to the concept of incomplete dominance in genetics. some examples:

  • Red and Yellow = Orange

  • Blue and Red = Purple

  • Blue and Yellow = Green

  • Purple and Yellow = Black

  • Purple and Orange = Black

F) Purple Protein

We were able to isolate a purple protein by modifying the amino acid sequence.

Scientific Conclusion

In order to make a functional pigmented protein, structure of the overall protein and specific amino acids in strategic positions are needed. By modifying the amino acids in the fifth, fourth and third position from the right of the sequence we were able to create different pigmented proteins. Additionally, the interaction of different pigmented porteins can create a different overall color of the cell.


  • I met with my partners Drew Cartmel and Annika Dinulos in the laboratory for in class and after class to modified the amino acid sequences for the proteins of different colors, the chart, and take the screenshots of the proteins.
  • We met with Dr. Dahlquist during office hours to clarified some questions we had about the concepts ob biochemistry.
  • I followed and modified the Biochemistry protocol from Aipotu to conduct this experiment.
  • I used the software Aipotu to modified the amino acid sequences and proteins and take screen shots the stucture of the different proteins.
  • I copied and modified the procedures on the Week 2 page to generate this lab notebook entry.
  • I copied and modified the protocol to edit a photo from [[ Media Wiki Help Page
  • Except for what is noted above, this individual journal entry was completed by me and not copied from another source.Lurbinah (talk) 22:49, 29 January 2020 (PST)