User:Etienne Robillard/Notebook/Endocannabinoids

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Introduction

The neuroprotective effects of the cannabis sativa plant are still poorly understood. The aim of this notebook is to design a method for intracellular delivery of N-docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) to (dopaminergic?) neurons using retrograde anandamide trafficking in order to protect microglial cells from drug-induced damage.

Neuropharmacology of synaptogenic endocannabinoids:

GPCR-dependent receptor heteromerization is a potential synaptogenic pathway with neuroprotective properties in the management of drug-induced neuronal damage through activation of (dopamine?) transcription factors and modulation of retrograde anandamide trafficking. (Reference needed)

Hypothesis

Anandamide trafficking may exert neuroprotective effects on the microglia through selective binding of transcriptional dopamine receptors:

  1. FABPs allosteric communication with dopamine neurotransmitters modulate synaptic plasticity and BDNF-mediated synaptogenesis.
  2. Synaptamide receptor heteromerization enhance homeostatic endocannabinoid transport.
  3. Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling fine-tune neuronal phase coherence through intracellular CB1 activation.

Experimental Method

  • Data mining of open access papers.

Results

Neuroprotection of the microglia via endogenous retrograde signaling

Endocannabinoid transport system

Identification of neuroprotective endocannabinoid transporters for management of drug-induced neuronal damage and dopamine hypersensitivity in the microglia:

  • Arachidonic acid (ARA)
    • Arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA)
  • Melatonin
  • Oxytocin
  • Synaptamide (DHEA)
  • Vitamin D

Intrinsic roles of microglial dopamine/anandamide cross-talk:

  • Enhanced microglial homeostasis and neuroprotection
  • Inhibition of drug-induced nitric oxide/glutamate production?
  • On-demand microglial neuroprotection
  • Nurr1 and Notch1 transcriptional regulation of dopamine synthesis ?
    • Activation of CB1 receptor by anandamide may promote fatty acid homeostasis through PPAR-gamma and (Nurr1?) signaling. (Reference needed)
    • FABP5 and FABP7 expressions may selectively enhance PPAR-gamma regulation of (dopamine?) transcription factors (Notch1, Nurr1). [1]

Phosphorylation-induced activation of phospholipase C promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis

CB1-mediated receptor heteromerization may modulates hippocampal neurogenesis through phosphorylation of PLC and activation of Wnt.

CB1 receptor expression prevent drug-induced corticostriatal excitotoxicity and microglial neuroinflammation

  • Anti-inflammatory effect of anandamide signaling on prefrontal cortex neurons. [2]
  • Anandamide/CB1 signaling may increase monoaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex. [2]

Discussion

Endocannabinoid transport of eicosanoids

Intracellular delivery of DHA to dopaminergic neurons may enhance eicosanoids synthesis. [3]

Endocannabinoid-mediated regulation of homeostatic synaptic plasticity

Anandamide and DHA may exert a synergistic effect on lipid homeostasis, glutamatergic and monoaminergic transports, and synaptic plasticity through retrograde signaling. Thus the mobilization of N-acylethanolamines via FABPs transport may provide a persistent supply of arachidonic acid to neuronal stem cells and mature neurons. [4][5]

Is synaptogenesis evidence of homeostatic endocannabinoid transport?

Intracellular anandamide trafficking may enhance BDNF/AKT1/CB1 expression. [6]

Mitochondrial function is mediated by CB1 receptor activation and regulate neuronal energy metabolism

DHA supplementation may increase mitochondrial function and enhance CB1/CB2 dependent neuroprotection through retrograde signaling. (Reference needed)

In specific, mitochondrial neuroprotection is enhanced via ACEA-induced intracellular CB1 receptor activation. [7]

Role of estrogenic attenuation of CB1 mediated energy homeostasis

  • Females may have reduced endocannabinoid levels. (Reference needed)
  • Females may express higher sensitivity to THC? (Reference needed)
  • The estrogen receptor (ER) activation modulates cannabinoid-induced energy homeostasis. [8][9]
  • Estrogen signaling induces a rapid decrease of glutamatergic transmission at POMC synapses. [10]

Neuroprotective effects of endocannabinoids are mediated by presynaptic CB1 receptor activation

Endocannabinoid signaling may protect on-demand hippocampal neurons from neuroinflammation upon exposure to NMDA-induced excitotoxicity and neuronal damage. Hence, presynaptic CB1 receptor activation may yields activity-dependent neuroprotection against excitotoxic glutamate releases in the hippocampus. [11][12][13]

Notes:

  • Extracellular ATP and heteromeric adenosine-CB1 interactions:
    • Inhibition of purinergic P2X7 receptor is neuroprotective in ALS model. [14]
    • Heteromeric adenosine-CB1 receptor activation inhibit on-demand extracellular ATP/glutamate releases. (Reference needed)
      • Transactivation of adenosine (A1) receptor is protecting neurons from NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. (Reference needed)
      • Adenosine-CB1 allosteric modulation may facilitate pharmacological inhibition of P2X7/ATP receptor. (Reference needed)

Retrograde signaling drives adult hippocampal neurogenesis

Synaptogenic endocannabinoids constitute a family of intercellular lipids with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective bioactivity to inhibit microglial activation during stress-induced neuroinflammation of the hippocampus. (Reference needed)

Retinoids as regulators of neural differentiation

  • Directed differentiation of neural progenitor cells by retinoic acid (RA) is induced by PPARs transactivation. (Reference needed)
  • RA may enhance neuron-astrocyte signaling through activation of retinoid X receptor (RXR/PPAR) heterodimer.[15]
  • RA may promote endogenous CNS remyelination, axonal regeneration, and neuritogenesis. [16]
  • Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) activation may induce transcriptional regulation of CB1 receptor expression by endocannabinoids. [17]
  • See also: Nurr1-RXR heterodimers mediate RXR ligand-induced signaling in neuronal cells.

Peripheral CB2 receptors stimulation inhibit thrombin-induced neurovascular injury through suppression of microglial activation

Induction of CB2 receptor expression by 2-AG may mediate neuroprotection agaisnt neurovascular unit dysfunctions, including multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hence, the suppression of thrombin-induced microglial activation by CB2 receptor expression may promote PAR1 inhibition in the microglia. [18] [19]

PAR1 inhibitors are a novel therapeutic/antiplatelet platform which inhibits thrombin induced dysfunctions.

BDNF/TrkB signaling prevent glutamate-induced excitoxicity in the hippocampus

  • Regulation of BDNF/TrkB signaling is mediated by adenosine activation:
    • BDNF/TrkB signaling is dependent on adenosine kinase (ADK)phosphorylation. [20] [21]
    • The adenosine A2A receptor transactivation of BDNF/TrkB receptors may enhance ADK-mediated neuroprotection and cardioprotection. [22]
  • Wnt signaling?

Conclusion

  • Functional neurogenesis and synaptogenesis is facilitated by intracellular delivery of DHEA to dopaminergic neurons.
    • Synaptogenic endocannabinoids are a emerging class of functionalized neurotransmitters for synthesis of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the hippocampus, striatum, and microglia.
    • The neuroprotective properties of synaptogenic endocannabinoids protect microglial neurons against drug-induced neuronal damage (excitotoxicity) and dopaminergic hypersensitivity.
  • Transactivation of PPAR-RXR heterodimer by DHEA enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
    • Allosteric modulation of CB1 expression by synaptamide facilitate intracellular FABPs signaling and fatty acid homeostasis.

Notes

  • Cannabinoids (THC) transactivation of CB1 receptors and PPARs may fine-tune purinergic P2X7 neurotransmission.
  • Adenosine antagonism may potentiate dopamine-CB1 receptors affinity (cross-talk). [23]
  • Endocannabinoid signaling may fine-tune (enhance) dopamine/melatonin synthesis in vivo.

Keywords

endocannabinoids, hippocampus, anandamide, 2-AG, CB1, CB2, CBD, FAAH, DHA, DHEA, THC, TRPV1, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, GABA, synaptamide, BDNF, LTP, ATP, P2X7, NADA, purinergic signaling, ADK, adenosine kinase, acetylcholine, synaptic plasticity, heterosynaptic metaplasticity, astrocytes, cytokines, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer, epilepsy, endothelium, microglial activation, mitochondrial phospholipids, cardioprotection, ethanolamide, FABP7, PPAR, GPCR, receptor heteromerization, CREB, GPR40, GPR55, arachidonic acid, neural stem/progenitor cells, retinoids, thrombin, excitotoxicity, glutamate, neuroprotection, neurotoxicant, TrkB, remyelination, tryptophan, microtubules, striatum, retrograde signaling, homeostasis, dopamine, glycine, cAMP, calmodulin, receptor trafficking, tubulin, PLC, Wnt, oxytocin, melatonin, eicosanoids

References

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See also

Cannabinoids:

Docosanoids:

Endocannabinoids: