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DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)

Intracellular DHA delivery promote homeostatic synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection in the hippocampus by increasing cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling

  • BDNF-induced synaptogenesis is enhanced by intracellular DHA delivery to neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs)
  • Increased CREB function (phosphorylation) may protect neurons from glutamate excitoxicity and neuroinflammation via phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor. [1]
    • mBDNF transactivate the TrkB receptor and decrease the excitability of GABAergic interneurons. [2]

Neuroprotective properties of DHA

  • DHA is neuroprotective and controlled by the P2X7 purinoreceptor. [3]
  • DHA exert proneurogenic functions on activated microglia cells. [4]

DHA and vitamin D control of serotonin synthesis

DHEA (N-docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide)

  • Ethanolamide metabolite of DHA.
  • Derivative of anandamide.
  • A synaptogenic endocannabinoid with antiglutamatergic and neuroprotective effects that induce synaptogenesis in vivo. [5]


  • Serotonin conjugate of DHA. [6]


  • Dopamine conjugate of DHA. [7]


  1. [Paper6]

    Dopamine D1 receptors mediate CREB phosphorylation via phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor at Ser897-NR1.

  2. [Paper1]

    Mature BDNF, but not proBDNF, reduces excitability of fast-spiking interneurons in mouse dentate gyrus.

  3. [Paper2]

    Purine receptors are required for DHA-mediated neuroprotection against oxygen and glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices.

  4. [Paper3]

    Docosahexaenoic acid modulates inflammatory and antineurogenic functions of activated microglial cells.

  5. [Paper4]

    Cannabinoid receptor-dependent and -independent anti-proliferative effects of omega-3 ethanolamides in androgen receptor-positive and -negative prostate cancer cell lines.

  6. [Paper9]

    Docosahexaenoyl serotonin, an endogenously formed n-3 fatty acid-serotonin conjugate has anti-inflammatory properties by attenuating IL-23-IL-17 signaling in macrophages.

  7. [Paper10]

    N-Docosahexaenoyl Dopamine, an Endocannabinoid-like Conjugate of Dopamine and the n-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid, Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Activation of Microglia and Macrophages via COX-2.

  8. [Paper5]

    Regulation of calcium signalling by docosahexaenoic acid in human T-cells. Implication of CRAC channels.

  9. [Paper7]

    Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Neurotransmission.

  10. [Paper8]

    Omega-3 fatty acids and hypertension in humans.

See also