BME100 s2014:T Group8 L1

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Name: callaway K freeland
Name: Colton W. Tucker
Name: Nicole Plachecki
Name: Omar A Benitez


Independent and Dependent Variables

The independent variable in this study is the inflammation inducing agent, Lipopolysaccharide. It is the independent variable because it is the thing in the experiment that will be changed. In this case we will be changing the dosage of Lipopolysaccharide.

The dependent variable is the Inflammotin in subjects. It is the dependent variable because it is the thing in the experiment which we want to observe change in according to the independent variable. In this case we want to see an increase in the Inflammotin protein of the elderly.

Experimental Design

Five groups of subjects Group One: Control (Placebo Pill) Group Two: One 10mg pill of lipopolysaccharide Group Three: 7 mg pill of lipopolysaccharide Group Four: 4 mg pill of lipopolysaccharide Group Five: 2 mg pill of lipopolysaccharide

The group starts at 10mg because it is known that this dosage will create an increase in Inflamotin. Because we want to find the smallest dosage, we start at 10mg and work our way down, in order to see the smallest possible dosage that will create the inflammotin protein.

All Subjects should be at least 65 years of age.

Number of subjects per group
Each group will have 10 subjects--5 men and 5 women--for a total of 50 subjects We will need more than 7 subjects per group, which is why we chose 10 per group.

Subject Selection

All subjects must be above the age of 65, generally healthy, and have been diagnosed with Chronic Inflammation with no other injuries. A stratified simple random sample will be used to choose 50 subjects to be randomly placed into the 5 groups, each with 5 men and 5 women; the subjects will be chosen from a collection of retirement communities in the same area.

Subjects cannot be on medications that affect their inflammation. All treatments will be administered on the same day at the same time to avoid natural variations in inflammation throughout the day. The treatments will be given in a double-blind such that neither the nurses administering the dosages nor the subjects know which groups are recieving which dosage or the placebo.

Sources of Error and Bias and Controls

Some sources of random error that could take place in this experiment could be the varying health of the elderly patients. With some of the subjects healthier and more well than others, the pill may affect them more or affect them less. The elderly subjects with minor or severe deteriorated health conditions could react much differently compared to those individuals who have remained healthy. Random error can happen since each individual will be affected differently by the drug. In order to control for this, we will be as randomized as possible in our selection, but we will avoid any subject who has a pre-existing ailment that drastically affects the experiment. For example, someone near death, or with cancer/undergoing chemotherapy.

Another source of random error can happen when the individual takes the dosage via mouth, it is possible for random amounts to get stuck in the mouth/teeth and not be consumed. In order to control this, instructions will be given to the subjects to swallow the pill cleanly and completely.

Systematic error can happen by not accurately giving correct dosages, and being off by +.001mg for example. To control for this error, we will utilize the same method of measuring the dosage each time, using the same technique each time.

Bias can occur if the person administering the drug gives off any subconscious signals to the patient, possibly telling the patient that they are part of the placebo group. For this reason to avoid bias, we do a double blind test, neither the administer or the patient will know the dosage. Bias can also occur if the subjects are all of one race/age/gender. In order to avoid this our subject selection will be as random as possible. Additonally, to control for any differences in gender reactions to the treatment, each randomly selcted group with have an even 5 men and 5 women.