BME100 f2017:Group9 W1030 L1

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OUR TEAM

Name: Nicholas Lee
Name: Samantha Balconi
Name: Cassity Jones
Name: Rachel Oberlander
Name: Carlos Ruiz


LAB 1 WRITE-UP

Health Care Issue

According to Alzheimers.org, “Alzheimer's is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior.” It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Alzheimer’s is a degenerative disease that intensifies over time and eventually inhibits individuals from being able to complete daily tasks.

Individuals with Alzheimer's have been found to have a deficiency of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Therefore, it is believed that if the levels of acetylcholine can be raised, it is possible to prevent the effects of Alzheimer's from setting in as fast or even at all. Current tentative treatments include the taking of supplemental pills and the altering of an individual’s diet to incorporate choline rich foods. An alternate and more direct treatment would be a second-generation transdermal patch that transmits constant levels of choline into the body which will ultimately produce greater amounts of acetylcholine in the brain, resulting in a more efficient delivery of this compound into the patient.


Citations

“Acetylcholine/Choline Deficiency in Chronic Illness – The Hunt for the Missing Egg.” Genetic Genie, 21 Oct. 2013, geneticgenie.org/blog/2013/10/21/acetylcholine-deficiency-in-chronic-illness-the-hunt-for-the-missing-egg/. Accessed 5 Sept. 2017.

“Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia.” Alzheimer's Association, www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp. Accessed 5 Sept. 2017.

“Alzheimer's Disease Research Centers.” National Institute on Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.nia.nih.gov/health/alzheimers-disease-research-centers#arizona. Accessed 5 Sept. 2017.

Nirogi, R, et al. “Quantification of acetylcholine, an essential neurotransmitter, in brain microdialysis samples by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.” Biomedical chromatography : BMC., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2010, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19877295. Accessed 5 Sept. 2017.

Smith, Jody. “Decrease in Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine Can Lead to Dementia.” EmpowHER, 28 Oct. 2014, www.empowher.com/mental-health/content/decrease-neurotransmitter-acetylcholine-can-lead-dementia. Accessed 5 Sept. 2017.

Waymire, Jack C. Ph.D. “Acetylcholine Neurotransmission.” Neuroscience Outline, Acetylcholine Neurotransmission (Section 1, Chapter 11) Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the Neurosciences, UT Medical School, neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s1/chapter11.html#storage. Accessed 5 Sept. 2017.



Customer Validation

Patients:

-Individuals with Alzheimer's

-Family members of those affected by Alzheimer’s

Providers:

-Banner Alzheimers Institute- 901 E Willetta St 1st Floor and 3rd Floor Phoenix, AZ 85006: (602) 839-6900, https://www.bannerhealth.com/locations/phoenix/banner-alzheimers-institute

-Alzheimer’s Association- 1028 East McDowell Road, Phoenix, AZ 85006-2622: 1-800-272-3900, http://www.alz.org/dsw/

-District Medical Group- Integrative Health Center- 3033 N. Central Avenue Phoenix, Arizona: (602) 470-5577, https://www.dmgaz.org/

-Phoenix Neurological Associates- 5090 N. 40th St. #250 Phoenix, AZ 85018: 602-258-3354, http://www.phoenixneurology.com/

-Barrow Neurological Institute- 350 West Thomas Road Phoenix, Arizona 85013: 1-800-227-7691, https://www.barrowneuro.org/

-St. Luke’s Behavioral Health- 1800 E Van Buren St, Phoenix, AZ 85006: (602) 251-8535, http://www.stlukesbehavioralhealth.com/

-Strategic Mental Health- 1492 S Mill Ave #305, Tempe, AZ 85281: (602) 377-7326, https://www.strategicmh.com/

-Terros Health- 1232 E Broadway Rd #120, Tempe, AZ 85282: (602) 685-6000, http://www.terros.org/services

-Foothills Neurology- 4530 E Muirwood Dr #111, Phoenix, AZ 85048: (480) 961-2365, http://foothillsneurology.com/

Physicians:

-John Andrefsky, M.D.: Clinical Assistant Professor, Neurology, CWRU School of Medicine

-Eric Reiman, M.D.: Director, Arizona Alzheimer's Disease Center, Banner Alzheimer's Institute

-Victor W. Henderson, M.D., M.S.: Director Stanford Alzheimer's Disease Research Center

-Frank LaFerla, Ph.D.:Director Alzheimer's Disease Research Center University of California, Irvine

Payers:

-Bruce D. Broussard: businessman in the healthcare industry and current CEO of Humana

-Harold L. Paz, M.D., M.S: Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer of Aetna

-David Cordani: President and CEO of Cigna since 2009

Purchasers:

-Boston Scientific: Maulik Nanavaty, Senior Vice President and President, Neuromodulation

-VitaCholine: Leading ingredient supplier for choline

-Abbott Laboratories: Miles D. White, CEO



Competitors

Advantages
-Liver that can prematurely metabolize drugs if taken orally.

-Hypodermic injections, which are painful and generate medical wastes. Hazards from reuse are also problematic

-Transdermal systems are non-invasive and can be self-administered.

-Patches last for long time.

-Patient compliance increases.

-Transdermal systems are generally inexpensive.


Disadvantages
-Only limited number of drugs can be transmitted through this avenue.

-Adhesiveness may face technical issues due to factors such as the environment and skin types.

-Site of application.

-Thickness of the stratum corneum.

-Size of the molecule.

-Lipid solubility.


Transdermal patch is a more marketable approach due to the following. Transdermal patch is a more appealing sound option for patients. The patch allows for easy application and self administered. The choline is permeable through transdermal route. More effective drug administration rather than those taken orally. Patches last a longer time span. The thickness of stratum corneum can be overcome by using certain methods such as iontophoresis which use electrical currents. Solubility can be achieved as choline is water soluble.


Citations

Drugs, Committee on. “Alternative Routes of Drug Administration-Advantages and Disadvantages (Subject Review).” Pediatrics, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1 July 1997, pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/100/1/143. Accessed 5 Sept. 2017.

Prausnitz, Mark R., and Robert Langer. “Transdermal drug delivery.” Nature biotechnology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Nov. 2008, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2700785/. Accessed 5 Sept. 2017.



IP Position

There are two patents closely related to our proposed invention. The patents are the “transdermal patch”(US5948433A) and “programmable control mounting system for transdermal applicator” (US5591123A). The transdermal patch is similar to our invention in adhesive layer, reservoir and transdermal delivery. However, the patent has expired and can not be redeemed. The programmable applicator is similar with our invention in that it has a control system within the patch. This patent is expired as well and not able to be redeemed.


Citations

“US5591123A - Programmable control mounting system for transdermal drug applicator.” Google Patents, Google, 30 Jan. 1997, patents.google.com/patent/US5591123A/en?q=microprocessor%2Ctransdermal%2Bpatch&country=US&scholar&page=1. Accessed 5 Sept. 2017.

“US5948433A - Transdermal patch.” Google Patents, Google, 7 Sept. 1999, patents.google.com/patent/US5948433A/en?q=transdermal%2Bpatch&country=US&scholar. Accessed 5 Sept. 2017



Fundability Worksheet Scores

Competitors
2

Customer Validation
1

IP Position

3