BME100 f2014:Group12 L1

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Independent and Dependent Variables

Independent Variable: Amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prescribed (mg); The experiment tests how the amount of lipopolysaccharide effects protein levels. This means we must change the dosage. Since this variable is manually modified, it is independent.

Dependent Variable: Level of inflammatory protein, Inflammotin, in the blood sample. The change in protein level is being measured as it compares to the independent variable. Since it is modified as a result of the independent variable, it is the dependent variable.

Experimental Design


Five Groups from 70-75



Number of subjects per group

10 Male and 10 Female Subjects per group. 20 people total per group.

Dose Size Subjects
Placebo (0 mg) 20 subjects aged 70-75
7 mg 20 subjects aged 70-75
8 mg 20 subjects aged 70-75
9 mg 20 subjects aged 70-75
10 mg 20 subjects aged 70-75

The 70-75 age group was chosen because this age range is in the middle of the elderly ages. The groups will get one of the selected doses in order to find the dose that will work the best. One group will receive a placebo will 0 mg of lipopolysaccharide in order to have a constant. Each group will be randomly selected with 10 males and 10 females in order to study all types of people. Both genders will be a part of the experiment because males and females do not always react the same ways to certain medicines. The groups will range from 7-10 mg of the medicine in order to find the least amount of milligrams needed to have to same effect as 10 mg.

Subject Selection

The subjects selected will be affected by various ranges of the inflammatory protein and will be in the age range: 70-75. A group selected based on similar lifestyles and a specific age range provides for a more controlled experiment, in which the results will be more easily justified.

Sources of Error and Bias

Potential Sources of Error:

● Additional medical conditions that the subjects in the trials might have. Some diseases can have a significant influence on the amount of Inflammotin produced normally by the body.

● The personal medical health and history of any individual in the trial can vary, which adds a possible element of error between the results.

● Uncertainty of the ELISA procedure. Depending on the accuracy and reliability of the results obtained from the ELISA procedure, data can be affected.

● Diet and lifestyle. The general health of each subject may effect the response each individual has to the Inflammotin drug.

● Gender of the subjects. The amounts of certain hormones vary between gender, and may have an effect on the individual response to the Inflammotin drug.

● Placebo effect. The placebo effect is "a beneficial effect in a patient following a particular treatment that arises from the patient's expectations concerning the treatment rather than from the treatment itself."

● Area of residence for each subject. The area of residence for each subject may have additional effects on the diet and lifestyle of each individual, effecting the success of the drug. Other key factors such as temperature and pressure in the area of residence could cause an increment or decrease in the levels of the proteins produced during inflammation processes.

Primary Methods of Control:

● Double blind test. Neither the doctor nor the subject knows the amount of medication that will be administered throughout the trial. This type of test will reduce the possibility of the placebo effect occurring, as well as any bias that may affect the study.

● Select subjects with similar eating habits and lifestyles. This method of control will help to limit extreme differences in results.

● Closely monitor all subjects in order to limit the any unwanted reactions from occurring in each individual. In the case of a negative reaction to a particular dose, close monitoring will prove to be important for sustaining the health of each subject involved in the trial.

● Not all external factors can be controlled, and since each individual is inherently different, the response each individual will have to the drug will vary. i.e. All subjects will be of a different age, and therefore have different responses to the drug and its administered dose.