BCTP-based nanovaccines: More Than "Simple α-amino acids" ?
- "While the scientists' depositions appear compelling at first glance, many of the statements are misleading. First, much has been made of the specialized knowledge needed to prepare dry powders of B. anthracis spores, yet this factor may have been exaggerated. Early reports that the spores contained a high level of silicon suggested that they could have been deliberately "weaponized" by coating them with silica to reduce static clumping and facilitate their delivery as a fine-particle aerosol. FBI scientists later determined, however, that the silicon was not on the surface of the spores but had been incorporated into an inner layer called the endosporium when the anthrax bacteria were grown and induced to sporulate. Thus, Ivins would not have needed weapons-related expertise to process the spores." Source: http://cns.miis.edu/wmdjunction/110822_fbi_anthrax.htm
- "Germination of bacterial endospores and fungal spores is associated with increased metabolism and decreased resistance to heat and chemical reactants. For germination to occur, the spore must sense that the environment is adequate to support vegetation and reproduction. The amino acid L-alanine stimulates bacterial spore germination (See e.g., Hills, J. Gen. Micro. 4:38 ; and Halvorson and Church, Bacteriol Rev. 21:112 ). L-alanine and L-proline have also been reported to initiate fungal spore germination (Yanagita, Arch Mikrobiol 26:329 ). Simple α-amino acids, such as glycine and L-alanine, occupy a central position in metabolism. Transamination or deamination of α-amino acids yields the glycogenic or ketogenic carbohydrates and the nitrogen needed for metabolism and growth. For example, transamination or deamination of L-alanine yields pyruvate which is the end product of glycolytic metabolism (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas Pathway). Oxidation of pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex yields acetyl-CoA, NADH, H.sup.+, and CO2. Acetyl-CoA is the initiator substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle (Kreb's Cycle) which in turns feeds the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Acetyl-CoA is also the ultimate carbon source for fatty acid synthesis as well as for sterol synthesis. Simple α-amino acids can provide the nitrogen, CO2, glycogenic and/or ketogenic equivalents required for germination and the metabolic activity that follows." Source: http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090143476