User:Pinaki R. Pandit
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- Pinaki R. Pandit
Pebbles in a Box, The third state of Matter.
Abstracts :- Matter has many dimensions at the same time but all in different directions. So Matter that occurs in space and time interacts with each other in different dimensions. For example in a box full of pebbles each interacts based on different dimensions. So each particle in the idea of particle (or a string of the string theory) can have different dimensions (unique dimensions). And for a particle no two dimensions overlap. So the geometry of interaction is limited only by the dimensions of the particle (cubes, pyramids, eggs, or like pebbles based on their origin). In the string theory if we can imagine a string to have many dimensions and any of its dimensions more representative at any given instance making it closer to one-dimensional and explain why such approach would seem logical.
What this paper claims.
1. Dimensions don’t exist independent of particles.
2. Each particle has a unique dimensions based on its origin.
3. No two dimensions for a particle can be the same. (length and width even if of same size are in different directions)
4. Dimension of each particle are independent of each other, there is no common dimension for all particles.
5. Particles interact according to the geometry of their detentions.
6. If particle occurs as matter or energy is based on such interactions as referred in point 5.
7. Any of the dimensions can be larger than others even infinite.
8. The dimensions can project into infinite, into neither space nor time completing a circle.
9. This state of occurrence where a dimension enters space time neutral position (Para) is where infinite and the visible present in time meets.
How the idea of looking at a particle with Pebbles in a Box explain both uncertainty and the string. Because for an ideal particle with no other particle around, occurring signally is nether energy nor mass only dimensions and the Para. But the moment the first particle is born all dimensional entities occur as mass or energy and depending on where they are placed in space and time. This also explains the Big-bang theory and other such phenomena. The moment first particle occurs, the dimensions cause the bang.
10. All matter in the universe is connected by dimensions, moving towards the state before the Bang.
String theory (From Wikipedia) is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. It describes how these strings propagate through space and interact with each other. On distance scales larger than the string scale, a string looks just like an ordinary particle, with its mass, charge, and other properties determined by the vibrational state of the string. In string theory, one of the many vibrational states of the string corresponds to the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravitational force. Thus string theory is a theory of quantum gravity. String theory is a broad and varied subject that attempts to address a number of deep questions of fundamental physics. String theory has been applied to a variety of problems in black hole physics, early universe cosmology, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics, and it has stimulated a number of major developments in pure mathematics. Because string theory potentially provides a unified description of gravity and particle physics, it is a candidate for a theory of everything, a self-contained mathematical model that describes all fundamental forces and forms of matter. Despite much work on these problems, it is not known to what extent string theory describes the real world or how much freedom the theory allows to choose the details. String theory was first studied in the late 1960s as a theory of the strong nuclear force, before being abandoned in favor of quantum chromodynamics. Subsequently, it was realized that the very properties that made string theory unsuitable as a theory of nuclear physics made it a promising candidate for a quantum theory of gravity. The earliest version of string theory, bosonic string theory, incorporated only the class of particles known as bosons. It later developed into superstring theory, which posits a connection called supersymmetry between bosons and the class of particles called fermions. Five consistent versions of superstring theory were developed before it was conjectured in the mid-1990s that they were all different limiting cases of a single theory in eleven dimensions known as M-theory. In late 1997, theorists discovered an important relationship called the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates string theory to another type of physical theory called a quantum field theory. One of the challenges of string theory is that the full theory does not have a satisfactory definition in all circumstances. Another issue is that the theory is thought to describe an enormous landscape of possible universes, and this has complicated efforts to develop theories of particle physics based on string theory. These issues have led some in the community to criticize these approaches to physics and question the value of continued research on string theory unification
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A point particle (ideal point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics. Its defining feature is that it lacks spatial extension: being zero-dimensional, it does not take up space. A point particle is an appropriate representation of any object whose size, shape, and structure is irrelevant in a given context. For example, from far enough away, an object of any shape will look and behave as a point-like object. In the theory of gravity, physicists often discuss a point mass, meaning a point particle with a nonzero mass and no other properties or structure. Likewise, in electromagnetism, physicists discuss a point charge, a point particle with a nonzero charge. Sometimes, due to specific combinations of properties, extended objects behave as point-like even in their immediate vicinity. For example, spherical objects interacting in 3-dimensional space whose interactions are described by the inverse square law behave in such a way as if all their matter were concentrated in their centers of mass. In Newtonian gravitation and classical electromagnetism, for example, the respective fields outside of a spherical object are identical to those of a point particle of equal charge/mass located at the center of the sphere.
In quantum mechanics, the concept of a point particle is complicated by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, because even an elementary particle, with no internal structure, occupies a nonzero volume. For example, the atomic orbit of an electron in the hydrogen atom occupies a volume of ~10−30 m3. There is nevertheless a distinction between elementary particles such as electrons or quarks, which have no known internal structure, versus composite particles such as protons, which do have internal structure: A proton is made of three quarks. Elementary particles are sometimes called "point particles", but this is in a different sense than discussed above. From Wikipedia, Uncertainty principle (disambiguation). Quantum mechanics n Glossary History , the uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known. Introduced first in 1927, by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg, it states that the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa.The formal inequality relating the standard deviation of position σx and the standard deviation of momentum σp was derived by Earle Hesse Kennard later that year and by Hermann Weyl in 1928:
Historically, the uncertainty principle has been confused with a somewhat similar effect in physics, called the observer effect, which notes that measurements of certain systems cannot be made without affecting the systems, that is, without changing something in a system. Heisenberg offered such an observer effect at the quantum level (see below) as a physical "explanation" of quantum uncertainty. It has since become clear, however, that the uncertainty principle is inherent in the properties of all wave-like systems, and that it arises in quantum mechanics simply due to the matter wave nature of all quantum objects. Thus, the uncertainty principle actually states a fundamental property of quantum systems, and is not a statement about the observational success of current technology. It must be emphasized that measurement does not mean only a process in which a physicist-observer takes part, but rather any interaction between classical and quantum objects regardless of any observer.
Since the uncertainty principle is such a basic result in quantum mechanics, typical experiments in quantum mechanics routinely observe aspects of it. Certain experiments, however, may deliberately test a particular form of the uncertainty principle as part of their main research program. These include, for example, tests of number–phase uncertainty relations in superconducting or quantum optics systems. Applications dependent on the uncertainty principle for their operation include extremely low-noise technology such as that required in gravitational wave interferometers.