User:Jarle Pahr/GFP

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Notes on GFP and related proteins:


  • Contains figure of a GFP sensor setup.


A Bilirubin-Inducible Fluorescent Protein from Eel Muscle:


Li 1998. Generation of Destabilized Green Fluorescent Protein as a Transcription Reporter.

Andersen 1998.

Scruggs 2005. Development and Characterization of Green Fluorescent Protein Mutants with Altered Lifetimes.

Destabilized green fluorescent protein detects rapid removal of transcription blocks after genotoxic exposure.

Short-lived green fluorescent proteins for quantifying ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent proteolysis in living cells.

Integrated non-invasive system for quantifying secreted human therapeutic hIL2.

Visualizing long-term memory formation in two neurons of the Drosophila brain.:

Structure and function


Protein Description Excitation Emission Stability Robustness Maturation time Reference
Aequora GFP
Superfolder GFP

Shaner 2013. Nature Methods. A bright monomeric green fluorescent protein derived from Branchiostoma lanceolatum.

Engineering and characterization of a superfolder green fluorescent protein.:

Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein.:



Bionumbers 106889. Maturation time of wildtype green fluorescent protein (GFP) .

Lizuka 2011. Kinetic study of de novo chromophore maturation of fluorescent proteins.


Lu et al. 2004. A high-throughput approach to promoter study using green fluorescent protein.

  • GFP expression experiments in 96-well format.

Differential rates of gene expression monitored by green fluorescent protein:

Trezzani et al. 2003. Monitoring of recombinant protein production using bioluminescence in a semiautomated fermentation process.

Predictive and interpretive simulation of green fluorescent protein expression in reporter bacteria:

Chae et al. 2000. Framework for online optimization of recombinant protein expression in high-cell-density Escherichia coli cultures using GFP-fusion monitoring:

Randers-Eichorn and Albano 1997. On-line green fluorescent protein sensor with LED excitation.


2011. Fluorescent proteins at a glance. Journal of Cell Science.

Chong 2010. Fluorescent Proteins as a Visible Molecular Signal for Rapid Quantification of Bioprocesses: Potential and Challenges. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. Volume 18, Issue 5, October 2010, Pages 863–869

2009. Engineered fluorescent proteins: innovations and applications. Nature Methods.

2007. Advances in fluorescent protein technology. Journal of Cell Science.

Fluorescent proteins: maturation, photochemistry and photophysics. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2006 Dec;16(6):714-21. Epub 2006 Oct 24.

2003. Biotechnological applications of green fluorescent protein.

Zimmer 2002. Green fluorescent protein (GFP): applications, structure, and related photophysical behavior.

Understanding, improving and using green fluorescent proteins. Trends Biochem Sci. 1995 Nov;20(11):448-55.


Dual Labeling with Green Fluorescent Proteins for Confocal Microscopy.

2002. Chem Rev. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP): Applications, Structure, and Related Photophysical Behavior. 102, 759−781.

2001.Seeing the wood through the trees: a review of techniques for distinguishing green fluorescent protein from endogenous autofluorescence. Anal Biochem. 2001 Apr 15;291(2):175-97.

1998. Albano et al. Green fluorescent protein as a real time quantitative reporter of heterologous protein production.

1998. The Green Fluorescent Protein. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 1998. 67:509–44.

1997. Chromophore formation in green fluorescent protein. Biochemistry. 1997 Jun 3;36(22):6786-91.

"One potential limitation of GFP as a reporter for gene expression is its relatively slow rate of fluorescence acquisition in vivo limiting its use to experiments exceeding the hour time scale. The slow rate of fluorescence acquisition is reported to be due to the oxidation step in chromophore formation (Figure 1), which has been estimated to occur with a time constant of 2-4 h in vivo. (Heim et al., 1994)"

1997. Applications of the green fluorescent protein in cell biology and biotechnology. Nature Biotechnology 15, 961 - 964 (1997) doi:10.1038/nbt1097-961.

1996. Engineering green fluorescent protein for improved brightness, longer wavelengths and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Current Biology Volume 6, Issue 2, February 1996, Pages 178–182.

Crystal Structure of the Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein. Science 6 September 1996: Vol. 273 no. 5280 pp. 1392-1395. (BP;DR)

Albano et al. 1996. Quantitative measurement of green fluorescent protein expression

1995. GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN. Photochemistry and Photobiology Volume 62, Issue 4, pages 651–656, October 1995

Heim, Cubitt, Tsien 1995. Improved green fluorescence.

Heim et al. 1994. Wavelength mutations and posttranslational autoxidation of green fluorescent protein. Science 11 February 1994: Vol. 263 no. 5148 pp. 802-805

1994. Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression.

Inouye and Tsuji 1994. Aequorea green fluorescent protein. Expression of the gene and fluorescence characteristics of the recombinant protein..

Using GFP to see the light. Technical focus, Trends in Genetics Volume 11, Issue 8, Pages 295-334 (August 1995)

1992. Primary structure of the Aequorea victoria green-fluorescent protein. Gene, 111(2), 229-233 (1992).