# User:Cristhian Carrillo/Notebook/Physics 307L/2010/09/15

## Contents

**Speed of Light**

^{SJK 12:28, 22 October 2010 (EDT)}-
**Please note that I worked with Ginny for this lab.**

## Purpose

The purpose of this lab is to measure the speed of light constant c and to compare it to the current accepted value.

## Equipment

^{SJK 12:25, 14 October 2010 (EDT)}- Tektronix Oscilloscope (Model TDS 1002)
- Bertan Power Supply (Model 215, 3000V, 5mADC)
- Canberra Delay Module (Model 2058)
- Ortec TAC/SCA Module (Model 567)
- Harshaw NIM Bin (Model NQ-75)
- Harrison Laboratories Power Supply (Model 6207A, 160V, 0.2A)
- Photomultiplier Tube (PMT)
- LED circuit
- BNC Cables

## Safety

- Check the cords, cables, and electronic equipment in use for any possible electrocution points. Also check to see that the power cords protective grounding conductor is connected to ground.
- Do not expose the PMT to ambient light because the light can ruin it.

## Setup

I worked with Ginny for this lab. We followed Professor Gold's manual and also Alex Andrego's Speed of Light lab notebook for some extra help with the setup. Alex's setup worked well for us and so we decided to follow it step by step along with some extra help with Professor Gold's manual.

## Measurements and Data

{{#widget:Google Spreadsheet |key=0AqzpS6URre5adGlUSkt5S0F5TnBUU0VqQ1pTSlZwSXc |width=750 |height=250 }}

## Calculations and Analysis

- Using our raw data, we were able to make a best fit line to find the best fit linear graph of our slope. We then converted the values to find our measured value of the speed of light.
- We took measurements of delay voltages every 10cm. We went from 260cm to 140cm
- Recorded the time of flight from the second signal using the measure function from the o-scope.
- We repeated the process 5 times.

Due to the settings on our TAC, our conversion was **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle 10 ns/1 Volt\,\!}**
.

- The slope of our linearfit plot is...
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle 0.1061\frac{ns}{cm}\,\!}**

- We calculated the uncertainty in our slope to be...
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle 0.87\frac{ns}{cm}\,\!}**^{SJK 12:21, 22 October 2010 (EDT)}

- We used our uncertainty to find a reasonable range for our slope data...
**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle (0.1061\pm0.87)\frac{ns}{cm}\,\!}**

- We then had to invert our slope to get a value for velocity...
**Minimum Range Inverse Slope:****Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{1}{0.1061+0.87}\simeq10.29507069\frac{cm}{ns}\,\!}**

**Maximum Range Inverse Slope:****Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{1}{0.1061-0.87}\simeq13.09071868\frac{cm}{ns}\,\!}**

**Average Inverse Slope:****Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle 11.69289469\frac{cm}{ns}\,\!}**

^{SJK 12:25, 22 October 2010 (EDT)}We looked up the accepted speed of light value, and according to Wikipedia, it is

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle 29.98\frac{cm}{ns}\,\!}**

## Error

A few reasons for our error could be...

- Wrong calibration
- Ginny and I took turns calibrating the o-scope, therefore we were not consistent with our measurements (ie. one of us might have been calibrating properly and the other one was not).
- Did not clearly understand the concept of time-walk.
- Measuring the distances with the meter stick might have given us an error

## Acknowledgements

Please note that Ginny was my lab partner for this lab. I would like to thank professor Koch and Katie for the help with our lab. I would also like to thank Professor Gold's manual, Alex Andrego and Anastasia Ierides for their detailed setup for the lab.