Speed Of Light
Partner: Alex Andrego
^{SJK 00:35, 16 November 2009 (EST)} 00:35, 16 November 2009 (EST) See my comments on the shared version of this primary notebook in Alex's notebook
Equipment
 Bertan Associates Inc. Power Supply Model 313B (03000V, 010mADC)
 Harrison Laboratories Power Supply Model 6207A (0160V, 00.2A)
 Canberra 2058 Delay Module
 Ortec 567 TAC/SCA Module
 Harshaw NQ75 NIM Bin
 Photomultiplier Tube (PMT)
 Tektronix TDS 1002 Oscilloscope
 LED circuit
 BNC Cables
Safety
Before we begin, some points of safety must be noted:
 First and foremost your safety comes first and then the equipments'
 Check the cords, cables, and machinery in use for any damage or possible electrocution points on fuses of machinery by making sure the power cords' protective grounding conductor must be connected to ground
 Be careful when handling the photomultiplier tube (PMT) (it can be ruined in ambient light when at operating voltages)
 Be careful when handling the Harrison Laboratories 6207A Power Supply when the capacitor plates are fully charged, even when unplugged wait for it to discharge for it may be a source of electrical shock
 Make sure the areas containing and around the experiment are clear of obstacles
Purpose
The purpose of this lab is to measure the speed of light, Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle c\,\!}
using short pulses of light and a high speed detector in a direct time of flight measurement over distances of one to two meters. Speed Of Light Introduction
Brief Description of Light
Light, in physics, is described as electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength consisting of photons (tiny packets of energy with both a wavelike and particlelike property, called waveparticle duality). The speed of light Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle c\,\!}
in vacuum is currently accepted as Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle 299,792,458 m/s \,\!}
. The speed of light is constant in every reference frame between particles. The speed of light appears to slow down through particles; the reason for this is the displacement of energy through which subatomic particles, such as electrons, are excited. Light can be measured by its intensity, frequency (or wavelength), polarization, and/or phase. Wiki on Light
Setup & Procedure
Note: Alex and I used the same set up and procedure. This is a direct copy of it. [1]
 The procedure we followed was based on the descriptions given in Professor Gold's manual and outlined with more detail in Tom Mahony's Speed of Light Lab Note Book.
 We first connected all elements of our experiment with our BNC cables.
 The "HQ" connection of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) to the Bertan Power Supply (PSU).
 The "A" connection of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) to the top input of the delay module.
 The output of the delay module to a BNC Tsplitter
 One side connected to the channel 1 input on the oscilloscope
 The other to the "Stop" input of the TimeAmplitude Converter (TAC).
 The "Start" input of the TAC to the cable attached to the LED.
 The power cable for the LED to the Harrison PSU.
 The output of the TAC to the channel 2 input of the oscilloscope.
 We then had to varify that all of our equipment was on the correct setting
 For the Bertan power supply:
 Top polarity switch on negative
 2000 volts
 Voltage adjustment to 400
 The Ortec TimeAmplitude Converter (TAC)
 The range at 100 ns
 The multiplier to 1
 Start and stop switches to "anti"
 The output switch to "out."
 We then turned our entire set up on and witnessed the delay between the LED circuit triggering and the PMT measuring the LED's pulse
 We measured this delay using the TAC
 We were then able to convert the measured voltage to be the response time.
 By measuring this voltage at different points, we were able to calculate the difference and divide by the distance to find the speed of the incident light.
Data, Tables, & Analysis
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Calculations
The slope achieved by excel from our plot was:
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle 0.006663636\frac{Volts}{centimeter}\,\!}
The uncertainty in our slope was calculated using codes in excel and was:
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle 0.000110554\frac{Volts}{centimeter}\,\!}
The uncertainty is added and subtracted to the slope before it is inverted:
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle (0.006663636\pm0.000110554)\frac{Volts}{centimeter}\,\!}
Then we invert it to get:
 Minimum Range Inverse Slope:
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{1}{0.006663636+0.000110554}\simeq147.6191135\frac{centimeters}{Volt}\,\!}
 Maximum Range Inverse Slope:
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{1}{0.0066636360.000110554}\simeq152.5999475\frac{centimeters}{Volt}\,\!}
 Average Inverse Slope:
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \frac{1}{0.006663636}\simeq150.0682128\frac{centimeters}{Volt}\,\!}
To attain a slope in "meters per second" we use the TAC conversion given for our settings which was Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle 5ns/Volt\,\!}
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle c_{measured, average}=\frac{150.0682128\times10^{2}meters}{Volt}\times\frac{1 Volt}{5\times10^{9}s}\simeq3.0014\times10^8 m/s\,\!}
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle c_{measured, minimum}=\frac{147.6191135\times10^{2}meters}{Volt}\times\frac{1 Volt}{5\times10^{9}s}\simeq2.9524\times10^8 m/s\,\!}
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle c_{measured, maximum}=\frac{152.5999475\times10^{2}meters}{Volt}\times\frac{1 Volt}{5\times10^{9}s}\simeq3.0520\times10^8 m/s\,\!}
Here we've found our best guess as well as the maximum and minimum range of values for the measured speed of light.
The percentage error of our average measured value relative to the accepted value of the speed of light Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle c_{accepted}=299,792,458 m/s \,\!}
can be calculated as:
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \% error=\frac{c_{accepted}c_{measured, average}}{c_{accepted}}\,\!}
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \% error=\frac{(299,792,4583.0014\times10^8) m/s}{299,792,458 m/s}\,\!}
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \simeq0.001159\,\!}
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle \simeq0.116%\,\!}
Notes About Uncertainty
Systematic Error:
 The meter stick was placed in an odd way in which each distance measurement had originated from a value of Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): {\displaystyle +0.8 mm }
more than a rounded measurement (i.e. instead of reading 60 cm off of the meter stick we had to read 60.8 cm)
 The PMT had to be manually adjusted so that the polarizers would align; this was to decrease the intensity of light approaching the PMT in order to have consistent data with the time walk effect (time walk effect is due to differing voltage peaks on oscilloscope, therefore different trigger levels)
 Note:For a better explanation of the time walk effect please refer to Tom Mahony's Lab Notebook which explains this in greater detail.
Other Error:
 Due to the fact that zooming into the graphs of the oscilloscope was not possible, our data may vary due to the level of precision we were allowed for measuring the intensity of light coming through for each trial
Speed Of Light Lab Summary
This is the link to my Balmer Series Lab Summary: Speed Of Light Lab Summary
Acknowledgments
Please note that Alexandra S. Andrego was my lab partner for this lab. Her version of this lab can be found here
 Prof. Gold's Lab Manual served as a loose guideline for our lab procedure and our calibration wave lengths
 We used Google Docs to format and post our raw data and error analysis to our wiki notebook
 We used Tom Mahony's Speed of Light Lab Note Book for more specific set up instructions, since his was so well done
 This link Wiki on Light was used as the reference for the description of light
