Law and Society

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Professor: Susan Silbey
Generals, Spring 2007

L&S General & Theoretical

Cotterrell, Roger. The Sociology of Law: An Introduction. London: Butterworths, 1984.

Friedman, Lawrence M., and Stewart Macaulay, eds. Law and the Behavioral Sciences. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969.

Kairys, David, ed. The Politics of Law: A Progressive Critique, revised edition. New York: Pantheon, 1990. [Critical Legal Studies]

Macaulay, Stewart (1984) "Law and the Behavioral Sciences: Is There Any There There?" 6 Law & Policy [read along with Silbey article, "Sociological Interpretation..."]

Schur, Edwin M. Law and Society: A Sociological View. New York: Random House, 1968.

Seron, Carroll, and Susan S. Silbey. “Profession, Science, and Culture: An Emergent Canon of Law and Society Research,” in Blackwell Companion to Law and Society, Austin Sarat, ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004, 20-60.

Silbey, Susan S., "A Sociological Interpretation of the Relationship between Law and Society," in Law and the Ordering of Our Life Together (1989)

Silbey, Susan S. “Loyalty and Betrayal: Cotterrell’s Discovery and Reproduction of Legal Ideology,” Law and Social Inquiry 16/4 (Fall 1991): 809-833. [Read with Cotterrell text]

Trubek and Esser, “‘Critical Empiricism’ in American Legal Studies: Paradox, Program, or Pandora's Box?" Law & Social Inquiry 14/ 1 (Winter, 1989), 3-52.

Jurisprudential theories of law

Aquinas. [On natural law]

Cardozo, Benjamin N. The Growth of the Law. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1924.

. The Nature of the Judicial Process. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1949.

Fuller, Lon L. “Positivism and Fidelity to Law: A Reply to Professor Hart,” Harvard Law Review 71/4 (February 1958): 630-672.

. The Morality of Law. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969.

Hart, H.L.A. “Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals,” Harvard Law Review 71/4 (February 1958): 593-629.

. The Concept of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961.

Holmes, Justice. “The Path of The Law,” Harvard Law Review 10/8 (March 1897): 457-478.

Llywellyn, Karl. The Bramble Bush. New York: Oceana Publications, 1951 [1930].

Sarat and Silbey. “The Pull of the Policy Audience,” Law & Policy, Vol. 10 (April/July 1988): 97-166.

Seagle, William. “A Short History of Ug,” in Men of Law. New York: Knopf, 1-12.

“Seneca Declaration.”

[Silbey, Susan S. Consumer Justice: The Massachusetts Attorney General’s Office of Consumer Protection, 1970-1974. PhD diss. Political Science. University of Chicago, 1978. [Introduction]

Law and Violence

Black, Donald. “Crime as Social Control,” American Sociological Review 48 (February 1983): 34-45.

Bobbio, Noberto. “Law and Force,” The Monist 49/3 (July 1965): 321-341.

Cover, Robert M. “Violence and the Word,” Yale Law Journal 95 (1986): 1601-1629.

Cover, Robert M. “Nomos and Narrative,” Harvard Law Review 97:4 (1983): 4-68.

[Erikson, Kai T., Wayward Puritans: A Study in the Sociology of Deviance (1966)]

Foucault, Michel, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Vintage, Reprint Ed., 1995 [1979]).

Sarat, Austin & Aaron Schuster, "To See Or Not To See: Television, Capital Punishment, and Law's Violence," Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities (1995).

Sarat, Austin, "Speaking of Death: Narratives of Violence in Capital Trials," Law & Society Review (1993)

[Sarat, Austin & Thomas Kearns, "Editorial Introduction," & "Making Peace With Violence," in Law's Violence, eds. Austin Sarat and Thomas Kearns (1992)]

Criminal Justice System

Balbus, Isaac, The Dialectics of Legal Repression: Black Rebels before the American Criminal Courts (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1973).

Bittner, Egon. “Florence Nightingale in Pursuit of Willie Sutton: A Theory of the Police,” in Herbert Jacob (ed.), The Potential for Reform of Criminal Justice (1974)

Black, Donald. “The Social Organization of Arrest,” reprinted from Stanford Law Review 23/6 (June 1971): 1104-1110 [154-160].

Blumberg, Abraham. “The Practice of Law as a Confidence Game: Organizational Cooptation of the Profession,” Law & Society Review 1 (1967): 15-39.

Burnett, D. Graham. A Trial by Jury (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001).

Currie, Elliott, “The Control of Witchcraft in Renaissance Europe," in Donald Black & Maureen Mileski (eds.), The Social Organization of Law (New York: Seminar, 1973), pp. 344-367.

Feeley, Malcolm. The Process is the Punishment (Russell Sage Foundation, 1979), pp. 3-34. [excerpts]

Griffith, John. “Ideology in Criminal Procedure, or a Third Model of the Criminal Process,” Yale Law Journal, Vol. 79, No. 3 (Jan., 1970): 359-417. [Read with Packer's book]

[Lewis, Anthony. Gideon’s Trumpet (New York: Random House, 1964).]

Packer, Herbert. The Limits of the Criminal Sanction (Stanford University Press, 1968), 149-173. [excerpt]

Silbey, Susan. “Making Sense of the Lower Courts” Justice System Journal Vol. 6, No. 1 (1981): 13-27.

==Legal History== (with Chris Capozzola)

Breyer, Stephen. Regulation and Its Reform (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982).

[Frank, Jerome, Courts on Trial: Myth and Reality in American Justice (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949).] [Example of Legal Realism]

Hawley, Ellis. The Great War and the Search for a Modern Order: A History of the American People and Their Institutions (Waveland Press, 2nd Rep. Edition 1997 [1979]).

Hartog, Hendrik. “Pigs and Positivism” Wisconsin Law Review (July/August 1985): 899.

Horwitz, Morton J., "The Rise of Legal Formalism," American Journal of Legal History 19:4 (Oct., 1975): 251-264.

[Horwitz, Morton, The Transformation of American Law, 1780-1860 (Cambridge, 1977).]

Kalman, Laura. Legal Realism at Yale, 1927-1960 (UNC Press, 2001 reissue).

Keller, Morton. Regulating a New Economy: Public Policy and Economic Change in America, 1900-1933 (Harvard, 1990).

[Kolko, Gabriel. Railroads and Regulation, 1877-1916 (Princeton, 1965).]

McCraw, Thomas K.. “Regulation in America: A Review Article.” Business History Review 49 (1975): 159-183. [Read alongside Kolko]

Polisar, Daniel and Aaron Wildavsky. “From Individual to System Blame: A Cultural Analysis of Historical Change in the Law of Torts.” Journal of Policy History 1, no. 2 (1989): 129-155.

Posner, Richard A., "A Theory of Negligence," Journal of Legal Studies 1 (1972): 29-96.

Schulman, Bruce J., “Slouching toward the Supply Side: Jimmy Carter and the New American Political Economy,” and Judith Stein, “The Locomotive Loses Power: The Trade and Industrial Policies of Jimmy Carter,” both in The Carter Presidency: Policy Choices in the Post-New-Deal Era, ed. Gary M. Fink and Hugh Davis Graham (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998).

[Urofsky, Melvin I., Louis Brandeis and the Progressive Tradition (Scott Foresman & Co., 1981).]

Vietor, Richard. Contrived Competition: Regulation and Deregulation in America (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1994).

Wang, Jessica, “Imagining the Administrative State: Legal Pragmatism, Securities Regulation, and New Deal Liberalism.” Journal of Policy History 17, no. 3 (2005): 257-293.

Welke, Barbara Young. Recasting American Liberty: Gender, Race, Law, and the Railroad Revolution, 1865-1920 (Cambridge, 2001).

[White, G. Edward, Tort Law in America: An Intellectual History (Oxford University Press, 2003 [1980]).]

[Witt, John Fabian, The Accidental Republic: Crippled Workingmen, Destitute Widows, and the Remaking of American Law (2006).]

Williams-Searle, John. “Courting Risk: Disability, Masculinity, and Liability on Iowa’s Railroads.” Annals of Iowa 58 (1999): 27-77. [read alongside Welke]

Civil Litigation & Disputing

Burke, Thomas. Lawyers, Lawsuits and Legal Rights: the Battle over Litigation in American Society (University of California Press, 2002). [excerpts]

Conley, John M., & William M. O’Barr. Rules Versus Relationships: The Ethnography of Legal Discourse (University of Chicago Press, 1990).

Ellickson, Robert C. Order Without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991) [Just read the introduction]

Engle, David, “The Oven Bird’s Song: Insiders, Outsiders, and Personal Injury in an American Community,” in Richard L. Abel ed. The Law and Society Reader. New York: New York University Press, 1995, 13-35.

Ewick, Patricia, and Susan S. Silbey. “Common Knowledge and Ideological Critique: The Significance of Knowing That the ‘Haves’ Come Out Ahead,” Law and Society Review 33/4 (1999): 1025-1041.

Felstiner, William L.F., Richard L. Abel, and Austin Sarat, “The Emergence and Transformation of Disputes: Naming, Blaming, Claiming . . .” Law and Society Review 15/3-4 (Special Issue on Dispute Processing and Civil Litigation) (1980-1981), 631-654.

Friedman, Lawrence & Robert V. Percival, "A Tale of Two Courts: Litigation in Alameda and San Benito Counties," 10 Law & Society Review 267-301 (1976).

Galanter, Marc. “Why the ‘Haves’ Come out Ahead,” in Abel ed., The Law and Society Reader, New York: New York University Press, 1995.

[Harr, Jonathan. A Civil Action (New York: Vintage Books, 1995).]

Kritzer, Herbert, and Susan Silbey (eds.). In Litigation: Do the Haves Still Come out Ahead? (Stanford University Press, 2003).

Macaulay, Stewart, “Non-contractual Relations in Business: A Preliminary Study” 28 American Sociological Review 55 (Feb. 1963)

Merry, Sally Engle, "Rethinking Gossip and Scandal," in Donal Black, Towards a General Theory of Social Control, Volume 1 (Academic Press, Inc., 1984). [read in comparison with Ellickson on mobility]

Merry, Sally, and Susan Silbey. “What Do Plaintiffs Want?: Reexamining the Concept of Dispute” Justice System Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2 (1984): 151-178.

Miller, Richard E., and Austin Sarat, “Grievances, Claims, and Disputes: Assessing the Adversary Culture,” Law and Society Review 15/3-4 (Special Issue on Dispute Processing and Civil Litigation) (1980-1981), 525-566.

Silbey, Susan, and Sarat. “Dispute Processing in Law and Legal Scholarship: From Institutional Critique to the Reconstruction of the Juridical Subject” Denver University Law Review, Vol. 66, No. 3 (1989): 437-498. [review, read first]

Trubek, David M. et al. “Understanding the Costs of Litigation: The Case of the Hourly-Fee Lawyer,” American Bar Foundation Research Journal 9/3 (Summer, 1984), 559-604.

Judges and Legal Reasoning

Arkes, Hadley, "Review of The Shadow of Natural Law," Michigan Law Review 86 (1988): 1492. [read with Lochner case]

Bickel, Alexander M. The Least Dangerous Branch: The Supreme Court and the Bar of Politics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986. [first chapter]

Carter, Lief and Thomas F. Burke. Reason in Law (New York: Pearson Longman, 2007). [read this first]

Ely, John Hart, Democracy and Distrust: A Theory of Judicial Review (Cambridge: Harvard, 1980). [excerpts]

“The Federalist Papers,” #51 and 78.

Friedman, Lawrence M. “On Legalistic Reasoning – A Footnote to Weber,” Wisconsin Law Review (1966): 148-171.

Kennedy, Duncan. “Form and Substance in Private Law Adjudication,” 89 Harvard Law Review 1685 (1976). [read this last]

Levi, Edward Hirsch. An Introduction to Legal Reasoning (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949). [first chapter & skim]

Lochner v. New York (1905).

Paul, Jeremy. “Changing the Subject: Cognitive Theory and the Teaching of Law.” [read this last]

Sociological Theories of Law

Sutton, John R., Law/Society: Origins, Interactions, and Change (Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, 2001). [read along with Weber, Marx, and Durkheim]


Berman, Paul. “An Observation and a Strange but True ‘Tale:’ What Might Historical Trials of Animals Tell Us About the Transformative Potential of Law?” 52 Hastings Law Journal 123 (Nov. 2000)

Durkheim, Emile. The Division of Labor in Society ( [1933]).

Hawthorn, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter and Selected Tales (Penguin Books, 1979), pp. 75-88.

Telpner, Brian, “Constructing Safe Communities: Megan’s Law and the Purposes of Punishment,” 85 Georgetown Law Journal (June, 1997): 2039


Chambliss, William. “A Sociological Analysis of the Law of Vagrancy,” Social Problems 12 (Summer, 1964), pp. 67-77.

Hay, Douglas. “Property, Authority, and the Criminal Law.” In Douglas hay, Peter Linebaugh, John G. Rule, E.P. Thompson, & Cal Winslow, Albion's Fatal Tree (New York: Pantheon Books, 1975), pp. 17-63.

Marx, Karl, "On the Jewish question" (1844)

Silbey, Susan. “After Legal Consciousness,” Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 1 (2005):323-368. [Esp. 343]

Silbey, Susan S. “Legal Culture and Legal Consciousness,” in International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences. New York: Elsevier, 2001, 8623-8629.

Thompson, E.P., Whigs and Hunters: The Origins of the Black Act (New York: Pantheon, 1975). ["rule of law" excerpt]


Hall, Jerome. Law, Theft, and Society (Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1952) [excerpts]

Weber, Max. Max Weber on Law in Economy and Society, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967). [introduction by Rheinstein; introductory concepts, economic system and normative orders; emergence of legal norms; rights (limits of freedom of contract); legal honoraries; & esp. rationalization]

Social Construction of Everyday Life:

Berger, Peter L., & Thomas Luckman, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1966).

Ewick, Patricia, and Susan S. Silbey. The Common Place of Law: Stories of Everyday Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Haltom, William & Michael, McCann, Distorting the Law: Politics, Media, and the Litigation Crisis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004). [McDonalds coffee and legal consciousness excerpts]

Latour, Bruno, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory (Oxford University Press, 2005).

Macaulay, Stewart (1984) "Law and the Behavioral Sciences: Is There Any There There?" 6 Law & Policy 149-187.

Silbey, Susan S. & Ayn Cavicchi, "The Common Place of Law: Transforming Matters of Concern into the Objects of Everyday Life," in Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy, Bruno Latour and Peter Weibel (eds.) (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005).

Silbey, Susan S., "A Sociological Interpretation of the Relationship between Law and Society," in Richard John Neuhaus (ed.), Law and the Ordering of Our Life Together (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1989), pp. 1-27.

Other Key Sociology:

Merton, Robert, Social Theory and Social Structure (New York: Free Press, 1968). [excerpts on "Manifest and Latent Functions" & "The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy"]


Abel, Richard L, ed. The Law and Society Reader. New York: New York University Press, 1995. [selections on regulation]

Bardach, Eugene & Robert A. Kagan, Going by the Book: The Problem of Regulatory Unreasonableness (Temple University Press, 1982).

Bernstein, Marver, Regulating Business by Independent Commission (Princeton University Press, 1955)

Braithwaite, John Bradford & Peter Drahos, Global Business Regulation (Cambridage University Press, 2004). [Introduction; case chapters on "The Environment," "Drugs," "Food," "Sea Transport," or "Air Transport," and excerpts of Analysis]

Emerson, Robert M., "Case Processing and Interorganizational Knowledge: Detecting the 'Real Reasons' for Referrals," Social Problems 38:2 (May, 1991), pp. 198-212.

Espeland, Wendy. “Legally Mediated Identity: The National Environmental Policy Act and The Bureaucratic Construction of Interests,” Law and Society Review 28/5 (1994): 1149-1180.

Hurst, J. Willard, “Law and Economic Growth: The Legal History of the Lumber Industry in Wisconsin, 1836-1915,” in Friedman and Macauly, Law and the Behavioral Sciences.

Jasanoff, Sheila, The Fifth Branch: Science Advisors as Policy Makers (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990).

Kagan, Robert A., Neil Gunningham, & Dorothy Thornton, "Explaining Corporate Environmental Performance: How Does Regulation Matter?," Law & Society Review 37:1 (Mar., 2003), pp. 51-90.

Lipsky, Michael, Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services (Russell Sage Foundation Publications, 1980)

McEvoy, The Fishermen’s Problem: Ecology and Law in the California Fisheries, 1850-1980.

Morag-Levine, Noga. Chasing the Wind: Regulating Air Pollution in the Common Law State. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Silbey, Susan, “The Consequences of Responsive Regulation,” in J. Thomas & K. Hawkins (eds.), Enforcing Regulation (Boston, The Hague and London: Kluwer Nijhof, 1984), pp. 147-170.

, and Egon Bittner. “The Availability of Law,” Law and Policy Quarterly 4/4 (October 1982): 399-434.
. “Safe Science: Governing Green Laboratories.” [NSF Proposal]

Thomas, J. & K. Hawkins (eds.), Enforcing Regulation (Boston, The Hague and London: Kluwer Nijhof, 1984),

Wynne, Brian. “Sheepfarming after Chernobyl, A case study in communicating scientific information,” Environment, 31(1989): 10-15; 33-39.

Science and the law

(selections from the following list)

Bal, Roland. “How to Kill With a Ballpoint: Credibility in Dutch Forensic Science,” Science, Technology, and Human Values 30/1 (Winter 2005): 52-75.

Ben-Menahem, Hanna and Yemina. “Law and Science – Reflections" Science in Context, Vol. 12, No. 1 (1999), 227-243. [read Susan's introduction to Science in Law first]

[Berkowitz, Roger Stuart. The Gift of Science: Leibniz and the Modern Legal Tradition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005.] [chapter 1]

Boyle, J., Shamans, Software and Spleens (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).

Cole, Simon A. Suspect Identities: A History of Fingerprinting and Criminal Identification. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. [read his two articles – Soc Stud. of Science on finger print identifiers; and one below]

. “What Counts for Identity? The Historical Origins of the Methodology of Latent Fingerprint Identification.” Science in Context, Volume 12, Number 1 (Spring 1999), pp. 139-172.

[Deflem, Mathieu. “The Boundaries of Abortion Law: Systems Theory from Parsons to Luhmann to Habermas?" Social Forces 76(3):775-818 (1998).]

Delany, David. Law and Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Dibbell, Julian, “A Rape in Cyberspace.” The Village Voice (December 23, 1993)

Dumit, Joe. "Objective Brains, Prejudicial Images." Science in Context, Vol. 12, No. 1 (1999), 173-201.

Edmond, Gary. “Judicial Representations of Scientific Evidence," The Modern Law Review 63/2 (March 2000): 216-251.

Epstein, Steven, Impure Science

Epstein, Steven, "Activism, Drug Regulation, and the Politics of Therapeutic Evaluation in the AIDS Era: A Case Study of ddC and the 'Surrogate Markers' Debate." Social Studies of Science, Vol. 27, No. 5 (October 1997), 691-726.

Espeland, Wendy. The Struggle for Water: Politics, Rationality, and Identity in the American Southwest. Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 1998. [commensuration – Bureau versus Indians]

[Faigman, David L. Legal Alchemy: The Use and Misuse of Science and the Law. New York: WH Freeman, 2000.] [read alongside Sheila's book; Lempert; Walker]

. “To Have and Have Not: Assessing the Value of Social Science to the Law as Science and Policy,” Emory L.Journal 38 (Fall 1989): 1005-.
. “Mapping the Labyrinth of Scientific Evidence,” Hastings L. Journal 46 (January 1995): 555.

[Garrison, Marsha. “Law Making for Baby Making: An Interpretive Approach to the Determination of Legal Parentage,” Harvard Law Review, Vol. 113, February 2000.]

Golan, Tal. Laws of Men and Laws of Nature: The History of Scientific Expert Testimony in England and America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.

. “The History of Scientific Expert Testimony in the English Courtroom,” Science in Context 12/1 (Spring 1999): 7-32. [first chapter of book]

Huber, Peter W. Galileo’s Revenge: Junk Science in the Courtroom. New York: Basic Books, 1993. [they always use Bendectin drug case – ; read two articles -> Gary Edmund & David Mercer, "Litigation Life" Soc Stud of Science Vol. 30; Shana Solomon & Edward Hackett, "setting the boundaries between science & law" Sci, Tech & Human Values, Vol. ]

, and Kenneth Foster. Judging Science: Scientific Evidence in the Federal Court. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997.

Jasanoff, Science at the Bar: Law, Science, and Technology in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Jasanoff, Sheila. “What Judges Should Know about the Sociology of Science,” Jurimetrics, Vol. 32 (1992), 345-359.

Johnson-McGrath, Julie. “Speaking for the Dead: Forensic Pathologists and Criminal Justice in the United States.” Science, Technology & Human Values, Vol. 20, No. 4 (Special Issue; Autumn, 1995): 438-459.

Lahsen, Myanna. “Technology, Democracy, and US Climate Politics: The Need for Demarcations,” Science, Technology and Human Values 30/1 (2005): 137-69.

Latour, Bruno, “Scientific Objects and Legal Objectivity” in Law, Anthropology, and the Constitution of the Social: Making Persons and Things, Alain Pottage & Martha Mundy (eds.) (Cambridge University Press, 2004).

Lynch, Michael & McNally, Ruth. “Science, Common Sense, and Common Law: Courtroom Inquiries and the Public Understanding of Science.” Social Epistemology, Vol. 13, No. 2 (1 Paril 1999): 183-196. [prosecutor's folly]

Monahan, John & Laurens Walker. “Social Authority: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Establishing Social Science in Law,” U. Penn. L. Rev 134 (March 1986): 477. [cf. Cardozo, "Path of Law"]

Mnookin, Jennifer L. “The Image of Truth: Photographic Evidence and the Power of Analogy,” Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities, Vol. 10, No. 17 (1998)

Mnookin [X-rays]

Rafter, Nicole Hahn. “Seeing and Believing: Images of Heredity in Biological Theories of Crime” Brooklyn Law Review 67 (1): 71-99 (2001)

Risken, Jessica. “The Lawyer and the Lightning Rod” Science in Context, Vol. 12 (1999), pp. 61-99.

Rosen, Lawrence. “The Anthropologist as Expert Witness,” American Anthropologist 79/3 (September 1977): 555-578.

Schweber, Howard. “Law in the Natural Sciences in Nineteenth-Century American Universities” Science in Context, Vol. 12, No. 1 (1999): 101-121. [law/science boundary]

Silbey, Susan. “Introduction,” in Law and Science I: Epistemological, Evidentiary, and Relational Engagements. Manuscript.

Silbey, Susan, and Patricia Ewick. “The Architecture of Authority: The Place of Law in the Space of Science,” in Austin Sarat, et al., eds. The Place of Law. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003, 77-108.

[Smith, Roger, and Brian Wynne. Expert Evidence: Interpreting Science in the Law. London: Routledge, 1989.] [Esp. “Establishing the Rules”]

Walker, Laurens, & Monahan, John, “Social Frameworks: A New Use of Social Science in Law.” Virginia Law Review, Vol. 73, No. 3 (Apr., 1987), pp. 559-598.

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