Griffin:Antibody Related Solutions & Recipes

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Acrylamide Stock Solution

Acrylamide forms linear polymers and bis-Acrylamide introduces cross-link polyacrylamide chains; by mixing Acrylamide to bis-Acrylamide, optimal pore size can be obtained for the protein being resolved. Ready-to-use acrylamide solutions offer safety convenience.

To make 1L:

Laemmli protein separating gel, 37.5:1 ratio

  • 30% Acrylamide: 300 g Acrylamide
  • 0.8% Bis-Acrylamide: 8.0 g Bis-Acrylamide


  • CAS Number: 79-06-1 Acrylamide (crystalline; store @ 4C)
  • CAS Number: 110-26-9 Bisacrylamide (crystalline; store at room temperature)
  • Filter Unit (Nalgene 500 ml 0.2 micron disposable filter unit)
  • Light proof container

Methods: To make 500 ml Stock Solution

I) Place 300 ml ddH20 in beaker with stir bar

II) Add 150.0 g acrylamide to the H20 while stirring

III) Add 4.0 g bisacrylamide to the H20 while stirring

IV) Allow the acrylamide & bisacrylamide to dissolve

V) Bring the final volume to 500 ml

VI) Vacuum filter the acrylamide/bisacrylamide solution

VII) Place the acrylamide stock solution in a light proof container @ 4C

Acrylamide Solution from stock solutions

  • N,N′-Methylenebis-Acrylamide, 2% (bis-Acrylamide) is used in the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoretic separation of nucleic acids and proteins. Recommended for use with Acrylamide Solution, 40%

Antibody Reconstitution

For primary and secondary antibodies that undergo conjugation to detection molecules or solid phase, specific buffer reconstitution is critical for stability and shelf life. Various components can be combined to maximize the shelf life of an antibody in solution.

Bovine Serum Albumin

BSA is a stabilizer protein used in peptides and antibody solutions to mitigate protein aggregation. BSA is used because of its stability, lack of effect in many biochemical reactions, and its low cost since large quantities of it can be readily purified from bovine blood, a byproduct of the cattle industry.

Specifications for use with research antibodies

  • US origin or USDA certified
  • Fraction V powder
  • Heat-shock treated
  • Protease free
  • DNAse free
  • RNAse free
  • IgG free
  • fatty acid free




Bloom number is an indication of the strength of a gel formed from a solution of known concentration. The Bloom unit is a measure of the force (weight) required to depress a given sample area of gel a distance of 4 mm; the higher the Bloom number, the stronger the gel.

Bloom number is proportional to the average molecular weight:

Bloom Number Average Molecular Weight

50 - 125 (Low Bloom) 20,000 - 25,000

175 - 225 (Medium Bloom) 40,000 - 50,000

225 - 325 (High Bloom) 50,000 - 100,000

Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular weights, present in collagen. The proteins are extracted by boiling skin, tendons, ligaments, bones, etc. in water. Type A gelatin is derived from acid-cured tissue and Type B gelatin is derived from lime-cured tissue.1 Gelatin is used as a stabilizer, thickener and texturizer in foods; in the manufacture of rubber substitutes, adhesives, cements, lithographic and printing inks, plastic compounds, artificial silk, photographic plates and films, matches, and light filters for mercury lamps; in textiles; to inhibit crystallization in bacteriology and prepare cultures; in PCR hybridization in molecular biology; in the pharmaceutical industry as a suspending agent, encapsulating agent and tablet binder; and in veterinary applications as a plasma expander and hemostatic sponge.


Glycerol is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid. Glycerol is a common component of solvents for enzymatic reagents stored at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius since the solution will remain viscous and able to pipet. Glycerol displaces water in solution and minimizes protein conformational movements.

Sodium Azide

Sodium azide is an ionic chemical compound with the formula NaN3. This colorless azide salt is added to prevent bacterial contamination; sodium azide acts as a bacteriostatic by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase in gram-negative bacteria. Will inactivate HRP.


Thimerosal is an organomercury compound (approximately 49% mercury by weight) used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent in solution where it is prohibitive to use NaN3.

Clinical Formulations

Product name Dosage form Concentration ~mg/ml pH Formulation

  • ILARIS(canakinumab)Lyophilized 150 mg/mL NA92.4 mg/mL sucrose,L-histidine andL-histidine HCl, 0.6 mg/mL polysorbate-80
  • XOLAIR(omalizumab)Lyophilized 125 mg/mL NA125 mg/mL omalizumab, 90 mg/mL sucrose, 1.7 mg/mLL-histidine hydrochloridemonohydrate, 1.1 mg/mLL-histidine, 0.3 mg/mL polysorbate-20
  • RAPTIVA(efalizumab)Lyophilized 100 mg/mL~6.2 Approximately 82 mg/mL sucrose, 4.5 mg/mLL-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate,2.9 mg/mLL-histidine, 2 mg/mL polysorbate-20
  • SYNAGIS(palivizumab)Lyophilized 100 mg/mL NA47 mM histidine, 3 mM Glycine, 5.6% mannitol
  • SIMPONI(golimumab)Liquid100 mg/mL~5.5 0.88 mg/mL histidine and histidine–HCl monohydrate, 41 mg/mL sorbitol,0.16 mg/mL polysorbate-80
  • STELARA(ustekinumab) Liquid90 mg/mL5.7–6.31 mg/mLL-histidine andL-histidine–HCl, 76 mg/mL sucrose, 0.04 mg/mL polysorbate-80
  • HUMIRA(adalimumumab) Liquid50 mg/mL~5.2 6.2 mg/mL sodium chloride, 0.86 mg/mL sodium citrate, 1.3 mg/mL citric acid monohydrate,12 mg/mL mannitol, 1 mg/mL polysorbate-80
  • CAMPATH(alemtuzumab) Liquid30 mg/mLNA8 mg/mL sodium chloride, 1.44 mg/mL dibasic sodium phosphate, 0.2 mg potassium chloride,0.2 mg/mL monobasic potassium phosphate, 0.1 mg/mL polysorbate-80, 0.0187 mg/mL disodiumedentate dihydrate
  • AVASTIN(bevacizumab) Liquid25 mg/mL6.260 mg/mL trehalose, 5.8 mg/mL sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate, 1.2 mg/mL sodiumphosphate dibasic anhydrous, 0.4 mg/mL polysorbate-20
  • HERCEPTIN(trastuzumab) Lyophilized 21 mg/mL~6Approximately 20 mg/mLa,a-trehalose dehydrate, 0.5 mg/mLL-histidine HCl, 0.32 mg/mLL-histidine, 0.09 mg/mL polysorbate-20, 1.1% bacteriostatic water
  • VECTIBIX(panitumumab) Liquid20 mg/mL5.6–6.05.8 mg/mL sodium chloride, 6.8 mg/mL sodium acetate
  • ROACTEMRA(tocilizumab) Liquid20 mg/mL6.515 mM phosphate, 50 mg/mL sucrose, 0.5 mg/mL polysorbate-80
  • ARZERRA(ofatumumab) Liquid20 mg/mL6.58.55 mg/mL sodium citrate, 0.195 citric acid monohydrate, 5.85 mg/mL sodium chloride
  • SOLIRIS(eculizumab)Liquid10 mg/mLNAChloride, phosphate dibasic, phosphate monobasic, polysorbate-80
  • LUCENTIS(ranibizumab) Liquid10 mg/mL5.510 mM histidine–HCl, 10% trehalose, 0.01% polysorbate-80
  • REMICADE(infliximab)Lyophilized 10 mg/mL~7.2 50 mg/mL sucrose, 0.05 mg/mL polysorbate-80, 0.22 mg/mL monobasic sodium phosphatemonohydrate, 0.61 mg/mL dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate
  • RITUXAN(rituximab)Liquid10 mg/mL~6.5 9 mg/mL sodium chloride, 7.35 mg/mL sodium citrate dihydrate, 0.7 mg/mL polysorbate-80
  • ZENAPAX(daclizumab)Liquid5 mg/mL~6.9 3.6 mg/mL sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate, 11 mg/mL sodium phosphate dibasicheptahydrate, 4.6 mg/mL sodium chloride, 0.2 mg/mL polysorbate-80
  • SIMULECT(basiliximab) Lyophilized 4 mg/mLNA1.4 monobasic potassium phosphate, 0.20 mg/mL disodium hydrogen phosphate (anhydrous),0.32 mg/mL sodium chloride, 4 mg/mL sucrose, 16 mg/mL mannitol, 8 mg/mL glycine
  • ERBITUX(cetuximab)Liquid2 mg/mL7.0–7.48.48 mg/mL sodium chloride, 1.88 mg/mL sodium phosphate dibasic heptahydrate,0.42 mg/mL sodium phosphate
  • REOPRO(abciximab)Liquid2 mg/mLpH 7.2 10 mM sodium phosphate, 150 mM sodium chloride, 0.001% polysorbate-80a

Unconjugated primary antibody solutions


  • 0.2 ug/ul in 1X PBS, 0.2% gelatin, 0.1% sodium azide ; Store at 4C

Type B calf gelatin, 100 Bloom

Concentrated ChIP & EMSA grade

Also known as 'transcruz' or 'X' form

  • 2.0 ug/ul in 1X PBS, 0.1% sodium azide ; Store at 4C or -20C (aliquot if frozen)

In vitro/biological study grade

  • 2.0 ug/ul in filter sterilized 1X PBS

Conjugated antibody solutions

Horseradish Peroxidase

  • primary and secondary antibodies: 0.6X PBS, 40% (v/v) glycerol, 1% BSA, 0.0067% thimerosal

Thimerosal is necessary because sodium azide is an irreversible inhibitor of HRP. Thimerosal contains 49.6% mercury. Mercury is strictly prohibited from entering wastewater. Although a single solution has a low concentration, mercury is bioaccumulated by algae and bacteria in drain pipes. It is this bioaccumulation and the continued disposal of mercury in drains that can potetntially contribute to disposal violations.

Alkaline Phosphatase

  • (primary and secondary antibodies) 0.5X PBS, 50% (v/v) glycerol, 1mM ZnCl2, 1mM MgCl2, 0.02% sodium azide


  • (primary and secondary antibodies) 1X PBS, 1% BSA, 0.02% sodium azide


  • (ie FITC, TR, CY, Alexa) (primary and secondary antibodies) 1X PBS, 1% BSA, 0.02% sodium azide


  • (Protein A/G/L and CnBr agarose conjugates) 1X PBS, 0.02% sodium azide

Control solutions

Control IgG

  • 1X PBS, 0.2% gelatin, 0.1% sodium azide (same as unconjugated primary antibodies)

Control Sera

  • Add 0.02% thimerosal

Blocking Buffer (Bovine Serum Albumin)

To make 1L:

  • 20 mM Tris: 2.42 g Tris Base pH 7.4 w/HCl
  • 150 mM NaCl: 8.76 g NaCl
  • 0.01% Tween-20: 0.1 ml Tween-20
  • 3% BSA: 30.0 g BSA (Fraction V)
  • 0.02% NaN3: 10.0 ml 2% NaN3

Blocking Buffer (milk)

To make 1L:

  • 20 mM Tris: 2.42 g Tris Base pH 7.4 w/HCl
  • 150 mM NaCl: 8.76 g NaCl
  • 0.01% Tween-20: 0.1 ml Tween-20
  • 5% Milk: 50.0 g Nonfat Dry Milk
  • 0.02% NaN3: 10.0 ml 2% NaN3

Carbonate Buffer

To make 1L of 50 mM pH 8.2-9.6

  • Sodium carbonate (105.99 g/mol): 5.3 g
  • pH should start around pH 8.2 +/- use 5M NaOH to increase the pH of this buffer to 9.6
  • Optional add 0.02% NaN3

Casein solution

1. Add an appropriate amount of Hammersten grade casein to the buffer in a glass beaker with a magnetic spin bar. (Recommended concentration is 0.5%; maximum soluble casein is 1%.)

2. Place the beaker on a magnetic stirrer/hot plate.

3. Stir thoroughly while heating until the solution becomes translucent. Avoid foaming.

4. Remove the beaker from heat and let the solution cool. In some cases, it may also be desirable to filter the solution with a 0.45 to 1.2 µm pore size filter. For prolonged storage of casein solutions, refrigeration and preservatives (ThimerosalTM) are recommended.

Caspase Substrate Buffer

2x Rxn Buffer

  • 40 mM PIPES
  • 0.2 M NaCl
  • 2 mM EDTA
  • 20%(w/v) Sucrose
  • 0.2%(w/v) CHAPS

Cell Culture Solution Preparations

  • Make sure that the culture media contains an antibiotic (penn/strep); this alone will prevent the majority of contamination issues.
  • Dissolve small molecule solutes in either 100% ethanol or 100% DMSO. These solvents are not conducive to bacterial or fungal growth, and using them will prevent contaminants from multiplying in a stock solution.

Sterile Filtration

  • Small molecules can be sterile filtered through a 0.22 µm filter. There will be some loss of the product to the filter. Sterile filtering is the best precaution that can be taken against contamination; however the loss of material to the filter can introduce some variability into the experiment as well.

Coomassie Stain

Coomassie Dye:

  • Dissolve 2g Coomassie Blue (Serva Blau) in 250ml water
  • Slowly add 75ml of glacial acetic acid
  • Add 500ml of ethanol
  • q.s. to 1000ml with water

Final concentrations: 0.2% Coomassie Blue 7.5% Acetic Acid 50% Ethanol


  • methanol 20%: 800 mL
  • glacial acetic acid 5%:200 mL
  • H2O 75%: 3 L

Coupling Ratios (F:P)

  • 3 to 8 biotin per IgG molecule (biotin MW: 244)
  • 4 to 7 FITC per IgG molecule (FITC MW: 390)
  • 1 to 2 HRP per IgG molecule (HRP MW: 40,000)
  • 1 APC per IgG molecule (APC MW: 100,000)
  • ~1 PE per IgG molecule (PE MW: 240,000)
  • AF405: 1-3 moles of dye: mole of IgG
  • AF488: 4-9 moles of dye: mole of IgG
  • AF647: 3-7 moles of dye: mole of IgG

DEPC H20 (RNase Free Water)

Treatment of distilled (milliQ+) water with diethylpryrocarbonate (DEPC) (0.1%v/v) inhibits RNases via covalent modification of histidine, lysine, cysteine, and tyrosine.

  • Combine 100 μl Diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC / CAS Number: 1609-47-8) to 100 ml sterile filtered dH20. (0.1% DEPC/dH2O) in autoclavable bottle.
  • Shake, set 37C 12 hour.
  • Autoclave @ 15 minute.
  • Store @ ambient temperature.

DMSO Vehicle control

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a clear water soluble liquid that can dissolve both polar and nonpolar compounds.

Chemicals that are insoluble in water may require DMSO as an ideal solvent for cell permeable drugs. The disadvantage is that DMSO can affect cells, and so there must always be a parallel control setting where cells undergo treatment with everything but the chemical; also known as a 'vehicle' control. The treatment group of cells will then be known with confidence to be chemical-dependent relative to the vehicle-dependent negative control.

DMSO for cell culture should ideally be <0.1% (avoid use greater than 1% DMSO), since DMSO is cytotoxic at higher concentrations. However this is not always realistic depending on the chemical inhibitor. Determining a vehicle (DMSO) dose/response curve (viability) can determine the best approach. Hydrophobic/polar compounds may only dissolve in DMSO, so up to 5% DMSO in the culture assay may be necessary, in which case the vehicle control is essential.

Precipitation of the inhibitor out of the DMSO solution when it is pipetted into aqueous media is a characteristic of some DMSO soluble inhibitors. DMSO soluble inhibitors that are prone to precipitation can undergo dilution into aqueous media, however the media should contain 0.1-0.5% DMSO before the inhibitor is added, and they must be mixed very quickly to avoid precipitation.

Ideal maximum amount of DMSO relative to the media is 0.1% since DMSO alone can have significant side effects. The % of DMSO that is cytotoxic to cells is generally 0.1% and above. Final concentration of DMSO ideally should not exceed 0.5%.

Epitope tag sequences

FLAG epitope




HA epitope




Omni epitope


MASMTGGQQMGRDLYDDDDKV (invitrogen sequence)

FSGO (0.5% Fish Skin Gelatin Oil)

100 mL

  • 1 ml Teleostein Gelatin ∼45% in ddH2O
  • 0.5 ml 20% Triton X-100
  • 10 ml 10X PBS
  • 0.1 g Casein (Enzymatic Hydrolysate)
  • 88.5 ml ddH2O

Induction Conditions

Preparation of Nuclear Extract Inductions and Whole Cell Lysates


0.25 mg/ml overnight


4.0 uM for 4 hours


75 micromolar CoCl2 for 4 hours at 37C

  • induction of HIF


DMOG (dimethyloxalylglycine, Sigma#400091, 2 mM, 3 hours

  • stabilization of HIF


5ng/ml for 4 hours at 37C


Solid etoposide is weighed out and dissolved in DMSO to a concentration of 68 mM. Cells are induced at 68 mM etoposide for 6 hours.


5 minutes at 25ng/ml


100 ng/ ml , 15 or 30 min


15 minutes at 200 units/ml

  • Include fetal calf serum when inducing with TNF-α and γ-interferon.

Heat Shock

39C for 5 hours

IL-6 treatment of NIH/3T3

grow up cells and add 30ng/ml of IL-6 for 15 minutes. Then, lyse cells with RIPA buffer to get WCL.


0.005 mg/ml final concentrations for LPS, 40ng/ml for PMA, induction time is 2 hours


50 ng/mL for 5 minutes. Incubation time can be up to 30 minutes for successful induction


PMA or TPA; use at 40ng/ml for 2 hours at 37C.

  • PMA available from Gibco, cat# 13139-019

Serum Starved

no serum for 2 hours

Serum Starved + Serum

1) no serum for 2 hours

2) add serum back for 15 minutes


0.25 ug/ml for 6-10 hours (8 hours)


10 ng/ml for 1 hour at 37 degees celcius.


5 minutes at 10ng/ml

  • Include fetal calf serum when inducing with TNF-α and γ-interferon.

UV Irradiated

20 minutes under a UV light

NET-G Buffer

  • 150 mM NaCl
  • 5 mM EDTA
  • 50 mM Tris
  • 0.05% Triton X-100
  • 0.25% Gelatin (bovine skin, type III, approx. 225 bloom)
  • pH 7.4

NETN Buffer

Cell protein extraction buffer

  • 125 mM NaCl
  • 1 mM EDTA
  • 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.1
  • 0.5% Nonidet P-40
  • 10% Glycerol
  • 1X Protease Inhibitor Cocktail


Phosphate buffered saline (1x PBS):

Adjust pH to 7.4 with NaOH

Powdered PBS

10x PBS Recipe

  • Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) 10X PBS (0.1M PBS, pH 7.2):
  • Na2HPO4 (anhydrous) --------------------- 10.9 g
  • NaH2PO4 (anhydrous) --------------------- 3.2 g
  • NaCl ------------------------------------ 90 g
  • Distilled water ------------------------- 1000 ml
  • Mix / adjust pH 7.2 Store room temperature/ autoclave.
  • Dilute 1:10 with distilled water /adjust pH

Peptide Substrate

  • 10 mM TRIS pH 7.5
  • 150 mM NaCl
  • 0.02% azide

Ponceau S

Ponceau S dye is used to make a stain for rapid reversible staining of protein bands on nitrocellulose or PVDF membranes, and for staining proteins on nitrocellulose acetate membranes. Stain can be reused multiple times. The following are 2 common formulations;

2.0% Ponceau S

2% Ponceau S (w/v) in 30% TCA, 30% sulfosalicylic acid

  • 2g Ponceau S
  • 30g Trichloracetic acid
  • 30g Sulfosalyclic acid
  • H20 to 100ml

0.1% Ponceau S

0.1% Ponceau S (w/v) in 5% acetic acid

  • 5ml glacial acetic acid
  • 90ml deionized water
  • 5mg (0.1%) Ponceau S powder

PMSF stock solution


Mass: 174.194

0.1 M PMSF stock: 1.0 g PMSF + 57 ml isopropanol, store at -20°C

  • Soluble to 10 mg/ml in isopropanol, ethanol, methanol,and 1,2-propanediol.
  • Suggested working concentration: 17-174 ug/ml (100-1000uM).
  • Stability: Dry crystals are stable at room temperature. Stable at least nine months at +25 degC in 100% isopropanol.

PMSF stability in aqueous buffer

The half-life of 100 uM PMSF at 25 C (measured as ability to inhibit chymotrypsin) is 110 min. at pH 7.0 (phosphate buffer), 55 min. at pH 7.5 (Hepes), and 35 minutes at pH 8.0 (Tris). At 4 C, 100 uM PMSF is completely inactivated in 30h at pH 7.6 (Hepes), 22h at pH 8.0 (Tris), and 10h at pH 8.6 (Tris). Presence of EDTA and other metal chelators, DTT or 2-mercaptoethanol does not interfere with the action of PMSF.

PMSF safety precaution

DMSO solvent is haxardous for solubility of PMSF (acetylcholine esterase inhibitor). DMSO can penetrate skin as a vehicle to carry dissolved substances with it. Isopropanol is a good choice, being affordable, low toxicity and less polar than MeOH or EtOH, so PMSF is more stable in this solvent.

1.0 M PMSF stock: 0.87 g PMSF + 5 ml DMSO, store at -20°C

Recombinant Protein Solvents

  • 50 mM Tris, 2 mM EDTA, 250 mM NaCl, 250 mM NDSB : Standard dry down buffer for lyophilized recombinant protein.
  • 1X PBS, 50% Glycerol, 5 mM DTT : Standard solvent for solutions of recombinant protein.

Store any thawed aliquot in refrigeration at 2° C to 8° C for up to four weeks, and any frozen aliquot at -20° C to -80° C for up to one year. It is recommended that frozen aliquots be given an amount of standard cryopreservative (such as Ethylene Glycol or Glycerol 5-20% v/v), and refrigerated samples be given an amount of carrier protein (such as heat inactivated FBS or BSA to 0.1% v/v) or non-ionic detergent (such as Triton X-100 or Tween 20 to 0.005% v/v), to aid stability during storage.

Resolving Gel Buffer

To make 1L:

  • 0.75 M Tris pH 8.9: 90.8 g Tris Base pH 8.9 w HCl
  • 4 mM EDTA: 8.0 ml of 0.5 M EDTA (tetra Na is the most soluble)
  • 0.2% SDS: 20.0 ml 10% SDS

RSB-100 Buffer

  • 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4
  • 100 mM NaCl
  • 2.5 mM MgCl2
  • 40 ug/ml digitonin

RSB-100T Buffer

  • 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4
  • 100 mM NaCl
  • 2.5 mM MgCl2
  • 40 ug/ml digitonin
  • 0.5% Triton X-100

Running Buffer

To make 1L:

  • 50 mM Tris: 6.06 g Tris Base
  • 380 mM Glycine: 28.5 g Glycine
  • 1.6 mM EDTA: 0.67 g EDTA (tetra Na is the most soluble)
  • 0.1% SDS: 1.0 g SDS

20% SDS

Sodium Laurel Sulfate or Sodium Dodecyl: Stock Solution

  • SDS (Electrophoresis-grade): 200.0 g
  • Deionized H2O: 800 ml
  • Total Volume: 1000.0 ml

  • After 800 ml of dH2O is added--stir, top off to 1000.0 ml. Do not pH.
  • Heat to 68°C for dissolution.
  • Aliquot 100 ml into (10) 200 ml square bottles
  • Do not autoclave.

Sample Buffer for protein loading

Premade SCBT

Electrophoresis sample buffer (2X): 100mM 2-(N-Morpholino)- ethanesulfonic acid(MES), 10 mM Na EDTA, 15% glycerol, 1.5% SDS, 0.3% Triton X-100, 25mM TCEP-HCL, 7.5 mM DTT, 0.0025% Bromophenol Blue. Available pre-made (sc-24945).

2.5X (Laemmli sample buffer; LSB)

  • 25ml Glycerol = 25%
  • 12.5g DTT = 12.5%
  • 7.5g SDS = 7.5%
  • 15.6ml 1M Tris-HCl pH7.5 =
  • 5mg Bromophenol Blue = 0.005%
  • dH20 to 100ml

2X SDS sample buffer

  • 4g SDS = 4%
  • 2ml 2-Mercaptoethanol = 2%
  • 20ml of 100% glycerol = 20%
  • 1.36g TRIS base (121.1) = 112.5mM
  • 10 mg Bromophenol blue = 0.01%
  • dH20 to 100ml

Stacking Gel Buffer

To make 1L:

  • 0.1 M Tris pH6.7: 12.2 g Tris Base pH 6.7 w/H3PO4
  • 4 mM EDTA: 8.0 ml of 0.5 M EDTA (tetra Na is the most soluble)
  • 0.2% SDS: 20 ml 10% SDS

Stripping Buffers

2% SDS

To make 1L:

  • 62.5 mM Tris pH 6.8: 7.0 g Tris base ph 6.8 w/HCl
  • 100 mM 2-Mercaptoethanol: 7.0 ml 2-Mercaptoethanol (14.3 mol/L Stock)
  • 2% SDS: 20.0 g SDS

Acidic Glycine

  • Gly-HCl 100 mM, pH 2.5

Guanidine hydrochloride (GnHCl)

  • 6M GnHCl
  • 0.2% Nonidet P-40 (NP-40)
  • 100mM β-mercaptoethanol
  • 20mM Tris-HCl, pH7.5

TENT Buffer

Tris, EDTA, NaCl, Triton: A mild lysis buffer that is also suitable for dialysis applications

Option 1

  • 50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.0
  • 5.0 mM EDTA
  • 150 mM NaCl
  • 0.05% (v/v) Tween-20

Option 2

  • 40 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.8
  • 1.0 mM EDTA
  • 50 mM NaCl
  • 0.1% (v/v) Tween-20

TE Buffer

TE Buffer

  • 10 mM Tris, bring to pH 7.5 with HCl
  • 1 mM EDTA

pH is usually adjusted to 7.5 for RNA and 8.0 for DNA. The respective DNA and RNA nucleases are supposed to be less active at these pH values, but pH 8.0 can safely be used for storage of both DNA and RNA.

  • tetrasodium EDTA (CAS 67401-50-7) is favorable as with 4 chelated sodium readily goes into the aqeous (water based) solution @ alkaline. EDTA stabilizes DNA/RNA preparations by chelating (inactivating) metal ion dependent (DNase or RNase) nucleases.

Transfer Buffer

To make 1L:

  • 25 mM Tris: 3.03 g Tris Base
  • 192 mM Glycine: 14.41 g Glycine
  • 0.02% SDS: 0.2 g SDS
  • 20% Methanol: 200 ml Methanol

Tris Buffer Saline (TBS Tween, Wash Buffer)

To make 1L:

  • 20 mM Tris: 2.42 g Tris Base pH 7.4 w/ HCl
  • 150 mM NaCl: 8.76 g NaCl
  • 0.01% Tween-20: 0.1 ml Tween-20

1M Tris-HCl

  • 141g TRIS base in 800ml H20
  • pH to 7.5
  • H20 to 1 Liter


Solubility: Soluble in DMSO or ethanol; very poorly soluble in water; maximum solubility in plain water is estimated to be about 10-50 µM

Wortmannin (M.W. 428.43) dissolve in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to a concentration of 50 mM as a stock solution.