Kostov, Y., Harms, P., Rao, G. (2002) Bioprocess monitoring. Elsevier Science.
Electrochemical sensors for pH and dissolved oxygen remain the most commonly used in bioprocess monitoring, but continued research has resulted in improved optical sensors. Optical sensors for dissolved oxygen and dissolved carbon dioxide are now commercially available. Advances in optics and electronics are further driving down the costs of these sensors. In the near future, bioprocess optimization will change paradigms as massively parallel, fully instrumented bioreactors become available and high-throughput bioprocessing becomes a reality.