BME100 s2015:Group2 12pmL1

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Name: Levi Riley
Name: Alexandria Clark
Name: Blossom Mendonca
Name: Alina Kilic
Name: Trevor Douglass


Independent and Dependent Variables

Independent: LPS (Lipopolysaccharides) as the doses are varied in order to determine the smallest dose necessary for inflammation.

Dependent: Levels of Inflammotin in test subjects; the levels of Inflammotin are dependent upon the dose of LPS.

Experimental Design


Six groups will be needed; each group will be administered a different dosage of LPS with the sixth group receiving no LPS but a placebo instead. This will allow for finding the lowest dose of LPS which induces the correct amount of Inflammotin.

Group 1: 10 mg of LPS

Group 2: 8 mg of LPS

Group 3: 6 mg of LPS

Group 4: 4 mg of LPS

Group 5: 2 mg of LPS

Group 6: control group: 0 mg of LPS; placebo


Persons ranging from ages 67 to 69 will be used because, according to the U.S. government, this age is the beginning of seniority. This small age gap will allow for more accurate results. As subjects begin to age past 65, their bodies begin to deteriorate increasingly with age which can spur other medical conditions and uncontrollable variables which could throw off the data. Therefore, picking an age group close to 65 and having a small age gap between test subjects aims at limiting these uncontrollable variables.

Number of subjects per group

10 subjects per group:

- 5 males and 5 females

- Mixed races

Subject Selection

Subjects will include men and women of all races between the ages of 67 and 69. The number of men must equal the number of women in the study because each group will contain 5 men and 5 women therefore creating a necessity for 60 subjects total - 30 men and 30 women. Each subject will be randomly assigned to one of the six groups with no consideration for race or age; the only factor that will be taken into account is the necessity of having an equal number of males and females in each group. Subjects with serious medical histories including: gastrointestinal issues, inflammations, liver, kidney or heart failure will be excluded. A physical and basic blood work must be completed to determine eligibility to participate. The test subjects will be informed that they will be getting a dose between 0 mg and 10 mg of LPS and warned of any possible dangers the study may include, but the information will not be specific so much so that the placebo effect is experienced by any group.

Sources of Error and Bias

A subject could have an unknown underlying medical condition such as a genetic factor that causes inflammation. This error can be controlled by using genetic screening as part of the criteria in order to detail the subjects' genetic factors and avoid this possible error. The dose of LPS could be a "bad batch" which would result in extreme results of massive inflammation or of no inflammation at all. This error can be taken into account by ensuring that there are multiple studies conducted to ensure that any data which does not fit can be eliminated. The physical health of the individual and their baseline inflammation can affect how the doses of LPS affect the body (for example, a subject who was a runner in their younger days may have tissue damage and inflammation in their knees). This error can be controlled by ensuring the physical necessary for entry is extensive and includes tissue biopsies and a full blood workup in order to detect any inflammation already present in the body. The subjects may also have to stay in the lab during the course of the experiment in order to avoid activities which could become uncontrolled variables and thereby alter the way the body processes the LPS.