For the human subjects, the t-test values are as follows:

Post-hoc Tests

t-test values

0mg vs 5mg

8.59631E-07

0mg vs 10mg

9.94377E-06

0mg vs 15mg

1.39436E-08

5mg vs 10mg

3.01859E-05

5mg vs 15mg

1.57101E-08

10mg vs 15mg

6.4824E-08

A Bonferroni corrected p-value to achieve significance of 0.0083333 was used in the post-hoc testing to counteract the problem of multiple comparisions.

Experiment 2:Rat Study

For out t-test, we found a value of 0.8674035.

Analysis

Experiment 1: Human Study

In humans, the lipopolysaccharide was able to increase the amount of inflammatory proteins. There was statistically significant evidence that there would be an increase in Inflammotin between each dosage (0mg-5mg, 0mg-10mg, 0mg-15mg, 5-10mg, 5-15mg, and 10-15mg). In order to determine significance, an ANOVA test was used to determine if further analysis between groups was needed. Our ANOVA had a p value of 1.4*10^-16. Since this p value is less tha 0.05, we were able to run a post-hoc test which used a Bonferroni Correction. After performing the individual t-tests all the p-values were < .00833 meaning we have significance statistical evidence that the LPS was effective.

Experiment 2: Rat Study

In rats, the lipopolysaccharide was not able to increase the amount of inflammatory proteins. By running a t test, we found a p value of 0.8674. There was no statistically significant evidence to support the hypothesis that this inflammation inducing agent can increase the number of Inflammotin since the p-value from the t-test was greater than .05.

Summary/Discussion

The group designed and conducted an experiment to determine if an inflammation inducing agent can increase inflammotin protein levels. The test subjects include a group of elderly people and a group of rats.

On the first experiment (human study), the dosage of LPS in mg was increased by increments of five (0 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg). The graph of the results depicts that there is a significant difference in the effect of LPS on inflammatory protein (inflammotin) for elderly people. There was a slight increase of inflammotin protein levels when the LPS dosage is 5 mg and 10 mg. But when the LPS dosage was increased from 10 mg to 15 mg, the amount of inflammotin protein levels in the blood increase significantly. In brief, when the dosage of LPS being administered to humans is
increased the inflammotin protein levels also increase. On the second experiment (rat study), the dosage of LPS in mg was increased by increments of ten (0 mg and 10 mg). However, the graph of the results suggests that there is no significantly statistical evidence of the effect of LPS on inflammotin levels on rats. That is, the amount of inflammotin protein levels in the rats changed slightly/remained constant even when the dosage of LPS given increased from 0 mg to 10 mg.

The group used ANOVA to analyze and determine if the differences between the group of human subjects were significant. The ANOVA produced a p-value that is <0.05, which means that the differences between the group of human subjects were significant. Subsequently,six post-hoc tests were conducted to determine if there is significant difference between the human group individually; all post-hoc t-tests resulted in a p-value that is way <0.05 (i.e. <.00833). Therefore, the group concluded that there is statistical evidence that the LPS treatment was effective on humans.
In addition, the group performed a t-test on the rat subjects to determine if there is any significant difference between the two groups of rat subjects. The t-test produced a p-value that is >0.05 (i.e. 0.8674035), which reveals that there is no significant difference between the two groups of rat subjects and there is no statistical evidence that the LPS treatment was effective on rats.

Since the statistical analysis showed no significance in rats, it should not be used to treat inflammotin. Perhaps retesting using a larger group would show a different result.