User talk:Aminata M. Jamina/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU

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February 13 'Experiment/Lab 3 Introduction: The purpose of this lab is to understand the evolution of plant specialization by examining vascularzation in a variety of plants observed in a transect. Some plants like Moses, lack a vascular system, resulting in limited growth (in length) from the ground/tree/or bark. With evolution, plants were able to become more specialized, hence the formation of a vascular system which allowed them to branch out in the environment, allowing them to grow further from the ground, longer, and is across a vast array of locations. Another large component of this weeks lab is the observation of plants and fungi under the microscope. For example, the stomata can be observed by dissecting a small portion of a plant leaf. Materials and Methods: 1. Collect five different plants from your transect and a variety of leaves, and place them into zip log bags to bring back with you. Be sure to put the leaves in one bag, and the plants in another 2. Observed a sample of your five plants under the microscope by making a wet mount. Be sure to to make notes of different structures. 3. Run through each station 1-7, and observe different types of plants and fungi. 4. From the PCR reaction you ran last week, take a sample and run a gel 5. Prepare your Berlese Funnel with your leaf collection Data:' refer to attached files conclusion:  Identify the seeds you brought back from the transect as either monocot or dicot. See if there is any evidence of flowers or spores (ferns). The seed from our plants show to be dicot. There aren't any evidence of spores on our plants specifically and that could be because they aren't flowering plants

 What are the Fungi sporangia and why are they important? Sporangia are small black structures that grow upward from hyphae on a fungus. They contain spores are released when the sporangia open up.

 Take a look at some of the samples with the dissecting microscope and decide if they are fungi and which of the three groups they belong too. Draw a picture of one and describe it in your notebook. Also explain why you think it is a fungus.

Lab 3

February 15, 2014 The purpose of this experiment is understand the characteristics of bacteria, observe antibiotic resistance, and to understand how DNA sequencing is used to identify species. By find and observing the different bacterial body parts such as the flagella, you can indemnify the exact type of bacteria. Methods and Procedures: 1. Begin by observing each agar plate, and counting the number of colonies or bacteria in each plate 2. Make note of each plate that developed an antibiotic resistance. 3. Make a wet mount of a sample of bacteria: 2 from a nutrient plate and 2 from with tetracycline plate To make a wet mount, place a sample of bacteria on a slide, add a drop of water, then dry the slide by heating it over a open flame. When the slide is dried,place a cover slip over the slide and observed it under the microscope. Observed the sample under several magnifications and takes notes/draw diagrams of the sample and its size 4. Make a gram stain of each sample. Decide whether the bacteria is gram positive or gram negative. Follow the gram staining directions in the lab Manuel. Again, be sure to draw images of what you see, and measure the size of bacteria. 5. Make a PCR for bacteria DNA Sequence Again follow the directions in your lab Manuel for more accurate instructions.

All Raw data is saved as an attachment to the post*

Conclusion: The most surprising thing we observed in our plates was that for the plate with Tetracycline (10^-3), there was the same amount of bacterial growth on it than other plates without an antibiotic added to it. This is probably because that particular bacteria in the plate has a immune resistance to the antibiotic added to it. In fact, that bacteria was producing its own antibiotic, which was probably counteractive of tetracycline. Another thing we did observe was that the plates that had tetracycline added to them, grew fungus. I am predicting that they were acting as a protective mechanism for the bacteria that did grow on the plate.

Questions: Do you think any Archaea species will have grown on the agar plates? Why or why not? -No Arachea could grow from our agar plates because Archea live in extreme environments, where human life would be non-existent. For example, in the deep lowers levels of the ocean. And since we did not get out samples from any extreme environment, it would be impossible for them to grow on our nutrient agar plates. Explain why the appearance or smell might change week to week? -The longer we let the hey infusion sits, the more life develops, and the more the environment changes or formulates to accompany all walks of life in that particular fusion. Since we made our fusions from original environments (community garden) there are already animals/bacteria there that are fit to life in that environment. Do you see any differences in the colony types between the plates with vs without antibiotic? What does this indicate? What is the effect of tetracycline on the total number of bacteria? Fungi? How many species of bacteria are unaffected by tetracycline? -The plates without the antibiotic had less bacterial growth. This indicates that the antibiotic causes disorder to other bacterial cells who have not built up or have a resistance to the antibiotics so thus they do not grow. Tetracycline lessen the total number of bacterial cells present on the plate.

Lab 4

February 13 'Experiment/Lab 3 Introduction: The purpose of this lab is to understand the evolution of plant specialization by examining vascularzation in a variety of plants observed in a transect. Some plants like Moses, lack a vascular system, resulting in limited growth (in length) from the ground/tree/or bark. With evolution, plants were able to become more specialized, hence the formation of a vascular system which allowed them to branch out in the environment, allowing them to grow further from the ground, longer, and is across a vast array of locations. Another large component of this weeks lab is the observation of plants and fungi under the microscope. For example, the stomata can be observed by dissecting a small portion of a plant leaf. Materials and Methods: 1. Collect five different plants from your transect and a variety of leaves, and place them into zip log bags to bring back with you. Be sure to put the leaves in one bag, and the plants in another 2. Observed a sample of your five plants under the microscope by making a wet mount. Be sure to to make notes of different structures. 3. Run through each station 1-7, and observe different types of plants and fungi. 4. From the PCR reaction you ran last week, take a sample and run a gel 5. Prepare your Berlese Funnel with your leaf collection Data: Refer to attached files (I couldn't copy and paste my charts in the text box). conclusion:

Transect

Bacteria presents in community garden DNA Sequence 1: Agreria Bicblurata, DNA Sequence 2: Flavo Bacteria-cecal Bacterium

Zebra Fish

March 1, 2014 Control: Zebra fish in water Day 1: 20 zebra fish eggs Day 4: All Zebra fish eggs have been hatched into larvae Day 7: advanced progression of growth, everything is developing normally as it should, all zebra fishes are still alive Day 11: fish fully developed, vertebrae and tails present (adult stage?)

Experimental: Nicotine Day 1: 20 zebra fish eggs DY 4: 20 ZEBRA fish eggs are still present DAY 7: All zebra fish eggs have been fully hatched into larvae, with tails and other skeletal structures present. 20 fishes, but 2 were taken out to be fixed--18 left Day 8: Very slow and delay responses from fish. Some fishes did not move to about 15 seconds after i had tapped the corners of the peatry dish, 7 fishes still show normal responses as in the control group (proper movement). no kinks are present in the tails in comparison to theoretical data.

Berlisy Funnel

(Organised observed: spider, fly, and 3 ants all from the bottom layer, no invertebrates present or were discovered in the top layer.