User:SCGProject/Notebook/EBC 571/2021/10/26

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INTRODUCTION

Coffee is considered the second most-consumed drink globally, and according to the literature, Brazil is the biggest coffee producer. There are many coffee species planted worldwide, and the main species are Coffea arabica and Robusta. Arabica has the best sensorial properties, such as flavor and aroma. On the other hand, Robusta is cheaper to produce. [14] The distinguished flavor and aroma of the coffee come from its chemical composition and consequently its price through trading and exporting. [16] Coffee customers become more acquainted with coffee’s quality and origin of what they drink. [8] According to market fundamentals, in July 2021, there were 10.7 million 60-Kg bags exported of all types of coffee by every exporting country to all importing countries. There was a slight increase of 1.7% in comparison to 10.5 bags in July 2020. However, in July 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic hit, there were 11.9 million bags which was 4.4% above the latest production. However, coffee production is expected to grow after the easing of pandemic restrictions and consumption growth. [9] As a matter of fact, in This production and consumption of coffee, billions of tons of the spent coffee ground (SCG) goes to waste annually. Therefore, this enormous amount of biowaste can be helpful after recycling and reusing it in various ways such as soil fertilization, biorefinery, and neutralizing odors. Overall, SCG contains carbohydrates (45–47%, d.b.), proteins (13–17%, d.b.), lipids (9–16%, d.b.), and phenolic compounds (2–4%, d.b.) [7]

Many people worldwide consume coffee. If about 6 billion cups of coffee were consumed each year, around 93 percent of waste from coffee grounds would end up commonly disposed of via landfills [11]. The metabolic response of coffee trees in the rising atmospheric concentration of CO2 linked with the reduction in soil-water availability is complex due to the several (bio)chemical responses [19]. Organizations and research groups that suggest that SCG contributes to world contamination are currently looking for methods to value-add this waste product. Unfortunately, we still have a long way until we can efficiently face this current challenge. Pyrolysis methods have been implemented in SCG to extract high concentrations of fatty acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, concluding that coffee waste has excellent potential as a valuable bioenergy feedstock. [15]. Also, isolation compounds present in SCG are extracted with supercritical CO2 generally above 50 Celsius, 500 Atm, and different CO2 flow rates [2]. Additionally, magnetically modified spent coffee ground was successfully used to catalyze the aerobic oxidation of primary and secondary benzylic alcohols and tandem oxidative Groebke–Blackburn–Bienaymé reaction. [17] Finally, some applications on the whole SCG include from the preparation of PET/SCG composites [18] to analysis of its bioactive compounds as the whole composite with or without treatment [22]

Recent separation techniques have been implemented to isolate carbohydrates, lipids, and phenolic acids, while the protein fraction does not have a significant research interest at the moment. Carbohydrates have been extracted using easier processes, including autohydrolysis for polysaccharides [21]; constant shaking, heating, centrifugation, and filtration, followed by chloroform/methanol treatment [20]. The lipidic fraction was obtained with high yield percentages using absolute and hydrous ethanol. [5] On the other hand, Phenolic compounds in SCG can be used as antioxidants manufacturers such as food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals [23]. Its extraction has been determined using hydrothermal liquefaction [24], using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method readjusted to a 96-well microplate [21], as well as ultrasonic-assisted extractions (UAE) treatments with titanium alloy sonotrode [23]. Protein recovery from food byproducts improves the utilization of raw materials, reduces environmental pollution, and obtains beneficial proteins to human health. [25]. Research involving proteins in spent SGC includes methanol:H2O:acetic acid extraction [4], Kjeldahl method [7].

The arabica coffee light roasted bags from Ethiopia, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, and Papua New Guinea were purchased from different sellers in the eCommerce platform Amazon. [26] [27] [28] [29] [30]. The whole bean samples were grounded for thirty seconds using a home-quality grinder (KitchenAid BCG211). The extraction using 50g of coffee with 500mL of DI water was performed in a coffee maker (Cuisinart DCC-450BK) at 356.15°C and then oven-dried to constant mass 333.15 K for 16h (Ohaus PA84C Analytical Balance). The elemental analysis of each SCG was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (JSM-IT100, SEM). Different UAEs were implemented to isolate each targeted group. LC-MS (Shimadzu LCMS-8045) analysis was essential to To complement the characterization of the specific molecules assigned to each group to verify that the new method to extract them was correctly achieved.

REFERENCES

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  29. Amazon.com : Raggiana Papua New Guinea Coffee Bean Light Roast, Organic Shade Grown Coffee with Rich Natural Flavor for Healthy and Fresh Morning Start (Ground for Drip, 12 Oz) : Grocery & Gourmet Food https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B097C79T6R/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o04_s00?ie=UTF8&th=1 (accessed 2021 -09 -07).