User:SCGProject/Notebook/EBC 571/2021/09/21

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Coffee is one of the most abundant drinks in the world. Among all different types of beans, arabica coffee beans are the most extensively available, which account for 60-80% of the world's wild coffee production. As a result of the consumed amount of coffee, there is a massive amount of the spent coffee ground produced and wasted annually. Many studies showed that SCG contains some components that can be reused. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and quantify the organic groups in the SCG using different separation techniques. Five light roasted Arabica blend Coffee samples from different continents (Africa, Ethiopia; Oceania, Papua New Guinea; Asia, Indonesia, America, Guatemala, and Europe, Italy) were used to analyze the SGC relationships and differences in terms of composition. Every sample was analyzed by quintuplicate for statistical purposes using the software Rstudio statistical software.

Extraction of spent grounds was performed in a home coffee maker at 356.15°C and then oven-dried to constant mass at 333.15 K for 16h. Each dried SCG was characterized by 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and GC/MS. The brewing extraction was kept in the freezer until it was characterized by UV−vis, GC/MS, and ICP-AES.

Procedures have already been published for different carbohydrates, lipids, and phenolic fractions, while a new procedure to extract protein fractions is being developed.

Feedback by Dr. Zestos: "Good job. More detail will be required for the procedures as you now compose your methods and materials."


  1. Sulewska, A. M., et al. “Advanced Instrumental Characterization of the Coffee Extracts Produced by Pilot Scale Instant Coffee Process.” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 247, no. 6, Jan. 2021, pp. 1379–1387. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s00217-021-03715-z.
  2. Coelho, José P., et al. “Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Spent Coffee Grounds. Influence of Co-Solvents and Characterization of the Extracts.” The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 161, July 2020. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.supflu.2020.104825.
  3. Rijo, Bruna, et al. “Catalyzed Pyrolysis of Coffee and Tea Wastes.” Energy, vol. 235, Nov. 2021. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/
  4. Valdés, Alberto, et al. “Isolation of Proteins from Spent Coffee Grounds. Polyphenol Removal and Peptide Identification in the Protein Hydrolysates by RP-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF.” Food Research International, vol. 137, Nov. 2020. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109368.
  5. Toda, Tatiane Akemi, et al. “Conventional and Pressurized Ethanolic Extraction of Oil from Spent Coffee Grounds: Kinetics Study and Evaluation of Lipid and Defatted Solid Fractions.” The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 177, Nov. 2021. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.supflu.2021.105332.
  6. Williamson, Kathryn, and Emmanuel Hatzakis. “NMR Analysis of Roasted Coffee Lipids and Development of a Spent Ground Coffee Application for the Production of Bioplastic Precursors.” Food Research International, vol. 119, May 2019, pp. 683–692. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2018.10.046.