User:Meshael Abusalem/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU

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Lab Notebook Entry #9: Zebrafish Major Changes. (March 18, 2016)

New Changes in the Fish

During the last week of observation, the fish had all died. The difference between the independent and dependent variables is that more fish were alive in the control group compared to the nicotine changed group. Other observations include the overall physical activity of the fish in both the controlled and changed groups. The control group was very active throughout every observation, whereas the changed group was somewhat active after the first few days from when hey hatched, but then became very less active. The only way I was able to tell if they were alive or not was by watching their heartbeat. Other notable changes were the color change that was observed on the changed group which was an abnormal grayish/yellow color, and the shape of the fish. The changed group fish was curved while the control fish was straight and looked more stable.

Size of Fish

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Fish Count

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Photos Through Microscope

Control Fish IMG 1519.JPG Changed Fish IMG_1525.JPG

Lab Notebook Entry #8: Zebrafish Cont. (March 4, 2016)

First Week

Throughout the week, the fish hatched from their eggs and were in their larve phase. The changed and controlled fish differed sightly in size and color. The fish treated with nicotine had a sightly gray color. The untreated fish were transparent and were a bit bigger than the treated fish in terms of size. Other obvious changes were that the untreated fish were moving at a slower pace than the nicotine treated fish. The fish were fed and measured at treated: 1.5 mm, and untreated 2.0 mm.

Second Week

During the second week many of the fish had died. Of the treated fish 3/20 had remained alive, while the untreated fish 10/20 were still alive and well. The fish were fed and measured at treated: 1.5 mm, and untreated 2.5 mm. The treated fish that were still alive were moving at a much slower pace. They were resting but their heartbeats remained constant. The untreated fish were moving and well.

Pictures of Treated Zebrafish

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Pictures of Untreated Zebrafish

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The results of the PCR proved that the most abundant type of plant species is the Lelliottia amnion. This was done by taking the PCR sequence and blasting it into an interpreter which found that this species of plant was found at the transect.

Lab Notebook Entry #7: Zebrafish Intro (February 26, 2016)

Hypothesis and Rationale

Hyp: with the nicotine substance in the living environment that the Zebrafish will be living in, the Zebrafish will undergo growth difficulties and even possibly death. Rationale: this substance was chosen amongst others in other to examine its effects since this substance is found in human life and is known to have a negative health impact.


The Zebrafish were young when they were first placed in the control and changed environment. However, most of the fish were about in the 8-somites/13-somites phase, also known as phases G and H.

Physiological Description and Images

Since the fish were just beginning their growth, their physiological description was that similar to other organisms in their growth phase. The zebrafish were eggs that were just about to hatch from their yolk sacs (they hatch at 7 dpf). The fish eggs were round and translucent when looked at through the microscope, however, many had small black dots that could only be seen through the microscope.


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Weekly Observations

Many of the fish had hatched and morphed into the developmental phases. Some fish were in their Prim-15 on the first day while on the second day they were on high peck. There were not many significant changes between the control and the observed.

Images of Prim-15:

Nicotine: IMG 1403.JPG

Control: IMG 1406.JPG

Images of High Peck

Nicotine: IMG 0992.JPG

Control: IMG 0985.JPG

Lab Notebook Entry #6: Invertebrates (February 19, 2016)

Invertebrates Description Table

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Brelese Funnel

The Brelese Funnel was split into two plates in order to be examined. The first plate contained mostly the liquid that was used (ethanol and water solution) along with some components of the transect soil. When examined the first plate did not show many invertebrates except for a few yellow ants and a small wasp. The second plate which contained mostly soil from the transect had several invertebrates. These invertebrates differed in color and size. Overall, the second plate with the soil contained more organisms than the solution liquid.

Pictures of Plates

First Plate with mostly solution liquid: IMG 1301.JPG

Second Plate with mostly soil components: IMG 1298.JPG

Lab Notebook Entry #5: Plants and Fungus (February 12, 2016)

Location of plant samples with transect:

The plants were dispersed across the transect and somewhat difficult to find due to the fact that most of the leaves this time of year are dead. The plants that were collected and examined were found near the water ditch. This could possibly allow someone to hypothesize that the plants that were able to survive were those that were able to be nurtured through the water ditch.

Plant Characterization Table

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Images of Plants from Transect

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Lab Notebook Entry #4: Microbiology and Bacteria

February 5, 2016

Serial Dilution Results Table

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Colony Characteristics

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Materials and Methods

Gram Stain: The flamed loop was heated then used to take a bacteria culture from the bacteria plate. The culture was put on a slide along with a drop of water. The culture and water droplet were heated over a bunsen burner in order to remove the water. The culture was covered with crystal violet and stood for 30 seconds then rinsed with water. This process of adding a solution then waiting for 30 seconds was repeated with iodine and safranin stain as well. The culture was rinsed with alcohol and stood for 10-20 seconds after the iodine solution was added. Between each solution the culture was rinsed with water.

DNA Isolation and PCR Amplification: PCR tubes were labeled with transect number and colony number. The tubes were filled with a 20ul of primer/water mixture, then lightly shaken to ensure the mixture was dissolved. A small toothpick was used pick up a small amount of the bacteria culture. The toothpick was used to mix the culture in the primer/water. The PCR tube was covered and placed into the PCR machine.

Colony Morphology and Gram Strain

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Lab Notebook Entry #1: Examining Biological Life at AU