User:Madeleine Y. Bee/Notebook/CHEM-582 Experimental Chemistry II/2015/03/04

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March 4, 2015

  • Repeat synthesis, shorten time in sodium sulfate and lengthen time in 10% citric acid solution


Procedure adapted from | Kuo-Ying Amanda Wu and Keith D. Wisecarver (1992) and Hydrolysis of liquid pineapple waste by invertase immobilized in PVA–alginate matrix<br.> <br.> PVA-Alg-NaMT

  1. Prepare an aqueous solution of 13% PVA and 0.02% sodium alginate at 60°C (Stir plate on 3rd setting: ~68°C)
    • 1 g of PVA and 0.16 g of sodium alginate in 7 mL of water (12.5% PVA and ~0.02% alginate)
      • Add alginate while stirring PVA-water solution
    • ~0.1 g of NaMT should be added to this mixture where applicable
  2. Cool dissolved and mixed solution to 35°C
  3. Prepare 210 mL of citric acid, calcium chloride solution
    1. Add 12-15 g (5-7%) citric acid
    2. Add 8.4 g (4%) calcium chloride
    3. Heat solution to 40°C while stirring
  4. Add the PVA-Alg-Nanocomposite mixture drop-wise (by syringe) to the gently stirring (stir plate 3) citric acid-calcium chloride solution using a Pasteur pipette
  5. Allow solution to cool to room temp while stirring for another 20 min
  6. Stir in 24 g (10%) citric acid solution for 30 min
  7. Stir in 14.9 g (0.5 M) sodium sulfate solution for 10 min
  8. Rinse with water to remove excess reactants
  9. Allow beads to dry in teflon plate overnight


  • PVA: 1.06 g
  • Alg: 0.16 g
  • NaMT: 0.1 g
  • citric acid: 12.09 g
  • CaCl2: 8.42 g
  • citric acid: 24.92 g
  • sodium sulfate: 14.95 g