User:Madeleine Y. Bee/Notebook/CHEM-582 Experimental Chemistry II/2015/02/27

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February 27, 2015

  • Heat citric acid/CaCl2 solution and use Dr Hartings' smaller syringe tips


Procedure adapted from | Kuo-Ying Amanda Wu and Keith D. Wisecarver (1992) and Hydrolysis of liquid pineapple waste by invertase immobilized in PVA–alginate matrix<br.> <br.> PVA-Alg-NaMT

  1. Prepare an aqueous solution of 13% PVA and 0.02% sodium alginate at 60°C (Stir plate on 3rd setting: ~68°C)
    • 1 g of PVA and 0.16 g of sodium alginate in 7 mL of water (12.5% PVA and ~0.02% alginate)
      • Add alginate while stirring PVA-water solution
    • ~0.1 g of NaMT should be added to this mixture where applicable
  2. Cool dissolved and mixed solution to 35°C
  3. Prepare 210 mL of citric acid, calcium chloride solution
    1. Add 12-15 g (5-7%) citric acid
    2. Add 8.4 g (4%) calcium chloride
  4. Add the PVA-Alg-Nanocomposite mixture drop-wise (by syringe) to the gently stirring (stir plate 3) citric acid-calcium chloride solution using a Pasteur pipette
    1. Heat solution to 40°C while stirring for 30 min
    2. Allow solution to cool to room temp while stirring for another 20 min
  5. Leave beads in solution, not stirring, overnight
  6. Stir in 24 g (10%) citric acid solution for 30 min
  7. Stir in 14.9 g (0.5 M) sodium sulfate solution for 30 min
  8. Rinse with water to remove excess reactants
  9. Allow beads to dry in teflon plate overnight


  • PVA: 1.03 g
  • Alg: 0.16 g
  • NaMT: 0.1 g
  • citric acid: 14.0 g
  • CaCl2: 8.44 g
  • 10% citric acid: 25.0 g
  • sodium sulfate: 14.91 g