User:Hassan Mahmood/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU

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3-22-2014 Embryology Lab


The purpose of this lab was to determine whether alcohol would have a physical or behavioral effect on zebra fish embryos and their development. Zebra fish in general prove to be useful test subject because they develop in a reasonable amount of time and are transparent to observe changes. Testing the effect of alcohol will help determine and relate alcohol abuse to human behaviors and project possible effects on movement, development, behavior, reproduction, etc.


1. This experiment will tested for about 2 and a half to three weeks and data collection will take place very three days.

2. Take two patria dished one for control and one for test.

3. Add 25 ml of Ethanol to one patria dish (test) and 25 ml of water in the other patria dish (control).

4. Take a transfer pipet and add 20 healthy embryos to both the control and the test patria dishes.

5. Every three days take notes on observation and answer the 9 questions. (Change the water and test solution if necessary).

i. Amount hatched ii. Amount dead and alive iii. Movement of swimming iv. Amount of yoke v. Development of pigmentation and movement. vi. Morphology of body and tail vii. Heart rate per min viii. Observations of fins, and swimmer blades. ix. Tail length, total length, and eye diameter.

6. Sterilize test subject if you believe to be necessary.

a. Use a transfer pipet to take the zebra fish being use for sterilization out of the patria dish and put them into the tube. b. Add one drop of Tricanie solution for one ml of water.

Results: Table:


After looking at the lab data there is no way to say with 100 percent accuracy that alcohol had a major effect on their developments. Although there are some differences that appear in the two groups (control and Alcohol) such as shape of tails and eye development, and overall size the experiment was not don’t for a extended enough period of time to conclude the results were the cause of alcohol. Some other factors that were in play during this experiment were their projected rate of development to the amount of yoke they had. The experiment was expected to run about 2 weeks and the embryos were projected to have enough yoke to sustain them for that period of time. However, because of the hot room and weather the yolks were used up quicker then expected and most of the test subject perished as a result.


Lab 5 2-28-2014


The purpose of this lab is to study and understand the make up of invertebrates. In the process of evolution Invertebrates are some of the most advances and specialized species. It is important to recognize the progress that has occurred through evolution that has allowed certain organisms to thrive in their habitats. In the case of invertebrates cell speciation has been the major reason for survival. Instead of a single sell preforming all function of life like bacteria, invertebrates create diversity in their cells to serve different purposes. which help them adapt to their environment.


1. Observe the acoelomate, Planaria under the microscope and observe and record.

2. Observe the cross section slides of the Planaria, and nematodes.

3. Observe the coelomate Annelida and differentiate the different internal organs.

4. Find the berlese funnel set up during the previous class.

5. Remove the preserved solution and transfer it into a pertri dish.

6. Observe and record at least five invertebrates observed in the pertri dishes.

Raw Data:

Table 1: invertebrates found in transect

Tabe 2: classification of arthropods

Photos: invertebrates, and drawings

Table 3: vertebrates


After preforming this lab it’s clear that there are many factors that allow certain animals to thrive in different habitats. From the data that we collected the invertebrates most prevalent were the centipedes and the fleas. In the future it would be interesting find out whether these species of invertebrates recorded are only representative of the cold weather, or are the representative of the transect all year round. In particular, since our transect was a garden during the times of spring and summer other species like worms and different kind of insects that like fruits an vegetables should be more common they appear to be during when the data was collected.


lab 4 2-28-2014


The purpose of this lab is to study the diversity of plant life, and fungi located in our individual transects. In general plants originate from aquatic green algae and evolved to become plants. Plants can thrive in many different environments for the fact that most can fertilize which gives their mutation more of change to survive and further evolve into different species. For the fact that plants adapt so well to their environments studying them can give a large indication on what else can be expected from the transect like animal life, climate indication, etc.


1. Take three bags and something to collect soil with to your transect.

2. Find a area in your transect that contain soft/moiled soil, leaves, and other plants and collect 500g and place it in a bag. (75% soil 25% plant/leaves)

3. Collect five different samples plant samples found in your transect and place then in the bag.

4. Find/ collect samples of any seeds or flowers found in your transect.

5. Take all materials back to the lab.

6. Make a bursa funnel with the 500g sample collect.

7. Examine the plant species collected and record their physical traits, location found, vascularization, and reproductive parts.

Raw data:

Table 1:


• There were no flowers or seeds available in our transect, but our group observed the open Lily seed in class, which was a monocot.

pictures of seed observed:

• Fungi sporangia are the structure that contain the spores in the fungi and play a important role in their reproduction.

Fungi pictures and drawings:


Most of the plants species that were present in the transect during this time of the year were invasive weeds or other small plants that could survive the cold environment and without the need of assistance. However since our transect is a garden is should be expected that its topography dramatically changes from season to season. Also this is a unique area to test and have accurate results because its not natural but rather fixed by human interference.


Lab 3 2-22-2014

Introduction The purpose of this lab assignment is to be able to understand the different makeup of Bacteria and Archaea, and test how antibodies may affect them. Tetracycline works by breaking down the bacteria cell wall effective leaving them defenseless and killing them. From the biology lectures we learned that Archaea could survive under even the most extreme condition, so in our understanding even the Tetracycline with the antibodies should still contain some bacteria or Archaea, but the plates with the antibodies should be expected to be much less diversified, then the plates without the Tetracycline.


1. Obtain the plates created from the previous lab with the different dilution and antibodies.

2. Observe the dished and record any differences that you see among them and determine if there are any noticeable patterns that can be seen.

3. Count the number of colonies that formed on the different plates and determine there average size.

4. Create three slides from different plates stain them and put then under a flame to stabilize.

5. Observe he wet mounts for different species of bacteria or Archaea and record there your results.

Raw data:

In genera the plates without the antibodies produces light orange-yellow colonies that were arranged in irregular circular shapes while the plates that contained antibodies produces darker and more round colonies. Further more the plates that contained tetracycline produce significantly less number of colonies, which shows that the antibody effetely killed off most of the bacteria.

Table 1

Plate ones (10 -7) without tetracycline

1. Sarcinae (picture 2)

a. Circular yellow

b. About 2 mm in length (40x)

Plate two (10-5) With tetracycline

2. bacteria diplobactilli (Picture 1)

a. yellowish color

b. Longer in length the Sarcinae

c. Come in many different sizes. (40x)

Plate three with Tetracycline

3. fusiform bacill (picture 3)

a. Orange in color

b. Circular shaped

c. 1mm diameter (40x)


Most of the plates that were involved in this experiment contained some form of bacteria. The plates that contained Tetracycline effectively killed most of the bacteria on its plate and the ones that remained probably acquired some form of resistance either by gathering genes from the environment or acquiring them from other bacteria cells. I doubt that there are any Archaea on these plates because they tend to be found in the most extreme locations.


Lab 2 2/9/14


For lab two, groups were asked to observe the soil that we had collect (previous lab) and put in the jar of water (hay fusion), and treat it as a living habitat. This lab consisted of recording the appearance, and all the different factors observed. The final step of the lab consisted of taking samples from different parts of created habitat and identifying the different species observed.


1. Obtain the hay fusion created in the previous section.

2. Observe and record all factors sight, smell, anything strange, unusual, or catches your eye, and record all the results.

3. Take sample from different parts of the jar and make microscope slides. (Our group decided to take sample from top, middle, and bottom)

4. Draw and identify two organisms found in each section observed.

5. Use the Dichotomous key to determine the origin of the species found.


(Observations of the overall all jar)

• Smelled like sewage, or rotten like.

• Water appeared dirt; top of the water was muddy.

Sample taken from top

➢ Colpidium, (5 ums) measured under 10x

➢ Peranama (30 ums) measured under 10x

Sample taken from middle

➢ Paramecium Barsuria (100 ums) measured under 10x

➢ Colpidum (25 ums) measured under 40x

Sample taken from bottom

➢ Colpidium (25 ums) measured under 40x

➢ Spinostotrum (160 ums) measured under 40 x


After observing the different slides, from three different areas of our hay fusion we discovered that Colpidium was found in all three sights (top, middle, and bottom). From this we can infer that its is more adaptable then the other species that we observed like Peranama, Spinostotrum, and Paramecium Barsuria which were old found in certain parts of the hay fusion. If this particular hay infusion was observed for another two months more specialization would have occurred, which would mean more diversity should be expected, for example the species that specialized and use the sun would be more likely near the top, while other species that can thrive in more harsher location would be more likely to be found near the bottom.


2/6/14, lab 1 notes

Great work! Make sure you include pics from lab 1 and lab 2 by Sunday. Also, start working on building a map of your transect to detail your land and where your samples are taken from. We will talk about this more Wednesday. Good job!



Overview: The class was split up into five different groups and each group was assigned a different 20 by 20 foot land to record the topography and different biotic and abiotic features.


1. Get Assigned group

2. Get assigned a 20 by 20 foot land. (Our group assigned the community garden)

3. Observe the topography and record the data.

4. List the different abiotic and biotic components fund in the particular land assigned.

5. Take 50 ml sample of soil from different parts of the section assigned.


• Slanted, and hilly.

• North side of campus (American University)

• Large pods made of wood and filled with topsoil.

• When tis particular sample was taken it was wet/ damp.

Biotic Factors:

• Weeds

• Worms

• Bacteria

• Plants

Abiotic factors:

• Soil

• Wood

• Water

• Stone

• Metal fence

• Sunlight

• Pesticides


January 22 2014

I Have added text