User:Corey Bear/Notebook/(15 July 2014) Invertebrates
Intent: The intent of this experiment was to understand the importance of invertebrates and to learn how invertebrate systems have evolved into more dynamic and complex systems over time.
‘Overview:' This lab was composed of three sub-procedures that helped define and visually understand invertebrate diversity. Procedure One entailed the observation of cross-sections from coelomates, pseudocoelomates, and coelomates under a dissecting scope: specimen observed were dead on arrival to the laboratory, and therefore were observed with no movement. Table One describes the general movement seen in a typical live specimen. Procedure Two entailed the observation of five major classes of arthropods: arachnida, diplopoda, chilopoda, insect, and crustacea under a compound microscope. Procedure Three analyzed the invertebrates collected from the transect site through the berlese funnel. More information provided in Table Two. (Bentley, et al, 2014)
Observations: This experiment began with Procedure One, which was not physically conducted due to errors occurring during the delivery of the specimen (worms). General movements were described by the professor, which indicate that the movement of coelomates, pseudocoelomates, and coelomates are directly related to their structural complexity (i.e., Germ Layers). Information regarding the movement of these three worms can be found in Table One—Procedure One.
Procedure Three began by collecting five specimen from the alcohol drip portion of the berlese funnel. The fluid was segregated off into two sterile petri dishes where they were then observed under a dissecting scope to find, collect, and analyze five different invertebrates found from the transect site. Five independent specimen were collected—in sequential order corresponding to Table two: 1 (Siphonaptera & Flea at 700mm); 2 (Arachnid & Spider at 1500mm); 3 (Insect & Mosquito at 2000mm); 4 (Insect & Egg at 1000mm); and 5 (Arachnid & Spider at 800mm). This range span of specimen found in the transect site is 700mm to 2000mm, with the flea as the smallest and the mosquito as the largest. Two arachnids were also found in the specimen, one measuring 1500mm and another measuring 800mm. Together, these five invertebrates represent the diverse complexity found in a small sample of leaf specimen collected at the transect site.
Additional Observations: Vertebrate species have also been observed in the transect site. Four major groups of vertebrates have been documented to frequent the area, two of which are birds, one mammal, one amphibian, and one reptile. Two known birds of the area, are the pigeon and sparrow. The pigeon’s phylum to species is:
Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae Genus: Columba Species: Livia.
The Sparrow’s phylum to species is:
Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Passeriformes Family: Passerine Genus: Passer Species: P. domestics.
The mammal seen in the transect site is the Cottontail Rabbit, and phylum to species is:
Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Lagomorpha Family: Leporidae Genus: Sylvilagus Species: Lepus sylvaticus
The amphibian seen in the transect site is the frog, and phylum to species is:
Phylum: Vertebrata Class: Amphibia Order: Anura Family: Ranidae Genus: Rana Species: Temporaria
The reptile seen in the transect site is the garden snake, and phylum to species is:
Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptilia Order: Squamata Family: Colubridae Genus: Thamnophis Species: T. sirtalis
All of these species would benefit from the transect site both biotically and abiotically, as it is an American University garden site. Specifically, the transect site is full of tomatoes, flowers, carrots, mint, cabbage, and other vegetables. Abiotic materials include a hose which would provide daily water, and a plastic shed for protection. The garden is enclosed by a chicken wire fence, which could temporally keep out most vertebrate, but the perimeter could be penetrated by air or by tunneling, or through the excess diameter in the fence door. Moreover, these organisms represent the ecological concept of trophic, as the organisms consume one another, they give back the nutrients which allows for further reproduction, which is part of the community and allows for the carrying capacity to be maintained.
Table One—Procedure One: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B0_IEyKChqDxMXN1NjFDVnJPM2c/edit?usp=sharing
Table Two—Procedure Two: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B0_IEyKChqDxTFZ1TkxURjVaNlE/edit?usp=sharing
Reference Bentley., Walters-Conte., & Zeller. (2014). Biology 210 Lab Manual. Washington: American University.