User:Alexsheh/glossary

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A, B, C

Achlorhydria A lack of hydrochloric acid in the digestive juices in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid helps digest food.

adenocarcinoma Cancer that begins in cells that line certain internal organs and that have glandular (secretory) properties, ie the glandular tissues. More common in certain types of cancer (common in stomach, breast but uncommon in say the cervix).

Atrophic gastritis chronic inflammation of the stomach lining that causes the breakdown of the mucous membranes of the stomach

atypia atypical, deviation from the normal when talking of cells.

catalase [EC 1.11.1.6] a hemoprotein enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, protecting cells. It is found in almost all animal cells except certain obligate anaerobic bacteria. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, results in acatalasia.

commensal 1. living on or within another organism, and deriving benefit without injuring or benefiting the other individual. 2. an organism living on or within another, but not causing injury to the host. See symbiosis.

complement nonspecific defense mechanism. Set of blood proteins that have bactericidal activity.

congenic A line of mice that are genetically identical except for a difference in one locus of the major histocompatibility complex.

D, E, F

distal furthest from point of origin. Antonym, proximal.

duodenum connects stomach to jejunum… place where duodenal ulcers form

Enterocyte (from wikipedia) Enterocyte is a type of epithelial cell of the superficial layer of the small and large intestine tissue. These cells can help break up molecules and transport them into the tissues.

Entner-Doudoroff Pathway key enzyme is KDPG aldolase. Big in Zymomonas. Takes 1 mole glucose and converts it into 1 mole ATP, 2 moles Ethanol and 2 moles CO2. Some bacteria don't degrade all the way and leave it at 2 moles of pyruvic acid from glucose and then continue with other respiratory metabolism from Bacteriology Textbook online. It is an alternative to glycolysis which yields 2 moles ATP.

epithelia layers of cells that cover the external and internal surfaces of the body and are first line of defense of the body

fumarate reductase important respiratory enzyme, integral membrane protein which catalyses the interconversion of fumarate and succinate allowing E. coli to grow anaerobically using fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor.

G, H, I

GroEL heat shock protein that acts as a chaperone that helps proteins in an ATP dependent manner

heterotopic found in abnormal anatomical location

iatrogenic transmission of disease by physicians or due to treatment in therapy

idiopathic having unknown cause

J, K, L

lamina propria layer of loose connective tissue beneath the epithelium of mucosal cells

Lewis antigens carbohydrates found on the surface of epithelial cells. Antigens x and y are the same as a chain on HP's LPS.

M, N, O

M cells from wikipedia M cells (or microfold cells) are cells found in the follicle-associated epithelium of the Peyer's patch that have the unique ability to sample antigen from the lumen of the small intestine and deliver it via transcytosis to antigen presenting cells and lymphocytes located in a unique pocket-like structure on their basolateral side. Lack the microvilli of enterocyte but replace them with microfolds

megalocyte red blood cell

megalocytosis abnormal enlargement (frequently of megalocytes or of the urinary bladder)

microaerophilic organisms that require/tolerate less oxygen than present in the atmosphere normally

OMP outer membrane proteins

P, Q, R

pharmacophore arrangement of functional groups that give a molecule its activity

polyketide from wiki secondary metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They are formally derived from the polymerization of acetyl and propionyl subunits. They also serve as building blocks for a broad range of natural products or are derivatized

proximal closest to point of origin

rabbit ileal loop Laparotomy was performed to externalize the intestine by aseptic technique under anesthesia with intramuscularly administered Sumianxin (purchased from the Quartermaster University of the People’s Liberation Army) (0.2 ml/kg). Loops were created in the jejunum by placing ligatures at 6- to 7-cm intervals and separating loops with a 0.5- to 0.6-cm interposing loop. From Huang et al. 2003 I&I Production of FaeG, the Major Subunit of K88 Fimbriae, in Transgenic Tobacco Plants and Its Immunogenicity in Mice

S, T, U

sepsis also septicemia persistent bacterial infection of bloodstream

septic shock shock caused by nonspecific defense systems as a rxn to sepsis. Has 4 stages.

V, W, X, Y, Z

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