Species Case Study

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Dixon's Bio Web

AP Biology

AP Bio Course Expectations

Hillis Website

2012 Cell reproduction Wiki]

2011 Taxonomy Wiki]

2013 Diversity of Life Wiki]

BioBuilder.org

BioBuilding Synthetic Bio Curriculum

Parent's Guide to AP Bio

Anatomy and Physiology

Standard Bio

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<body lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:.5in'>

<div class=Section1>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'>If They Can Mate, Did They Speciate?<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>A Case Study in Evolution and Meaning of Species<o:p></o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>Jim Dixon<o:p></o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>Sharon High School<o:p></o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Introduction:</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>How many times have teachers heard students say that an animal evolved when a member of species X mated with a member of species Y? How many times have we been asked questions such as: Is there really such as thing as a liger? Can a dog and a wolf mate?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>What would happen if a <st1:State w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Chihuahua</st1:place></st1:State> and a Great Dane mated?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Did humans mate with chimps and that&#8217;s how we got AIDS? Haven&#8217;t we explained that a species is defined by reproductive isolation only to have students point out exceptions such as the dog and the wolf, or the recent hybrid Grizzly/Polar bear? </p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>This unit is designed to address the vexing issue of the species concept by using these common student questions and recent biology news.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>It is based on a case study approach. It is designed to offer AP Biology students an opportunity to review/relearn evolutionary concepts in a manner different than that in an introductory course. This method is being increasingly used in colleges because it fosters deeper thinking, independent learning and more sophisticated understanding. </p>

<p class=MsoNormal>It can be done in whole or in part and can be used as a webquest.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>For further explanation of the design and use of the unit, please see the teacher notes.</p>

<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times","serif";mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'><br clear=all style='page-break-before:always'> </span></b>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'>If They Can Mate, Did They Speciate?<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>A Case Study in Evolution and Meaning of Species<o:p></o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Part 1:<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Ligers and Chumans and Pizzly Bears! Oh, My!<o:p></o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Hello dear,&#8221; said Mom while cutting the tomatoes for dinner, &#8220;How was school?&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Tammy had just arrived home from her after school volunteer work at the animal shelter.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8220;Kinda cool.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>We had a huge debate in biology today.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Hi Dad.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Dad looked up from his newspaper.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8220;Hi hon.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;So dear, what did you debate about?&#8221; Mom said while concentrating on the tomatoes, &#8220;Not the value of genetic altered food again, I hope. I don&#8217;t care what they do to plants as long as we can get tasty tomatoes&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;It&#8217;s genetically modified organisms, and no it wasn&#8217;t that.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>We were discussing evolution and species and stuff.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>George, will you lower that!&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Tammy&#8217;s brother George was listening to music in the other room.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Anyway, Mr. Murray was explaining what a species is and how they can&#8217;t breed with other species and he was all excited about a news story of how some hunters have found a bear who was a cross between a polar bear and a grizzly and another news story about how human ancestors and chimp ancestors may have interbred not long after they split into two species. Then Mel asked, &#8216;If there was a pizzly, and a chuman, could there really be a Liger?&#8217;&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;That&#8217;s from that movie, Napoleon Dynamite.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Someone asked the same question last year when I had bio,&#8221; said George as he entered the room. &#8220;It&#8217;s a cross between a lion and a tiger. I&#8217;ll bet <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Murray</st1:place></st1:City> was really piz&#8230;&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Don&#8217;t open that refrigerator, dear.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>We&#8217;ll be eating in a little while,&#8221; said mom.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8220;So, is there such a thing?&#8221; </p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;&#8230;off!&#8221; </p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Tammy stared at George, wondering what day George actually stayed awake in bio last year. &#8220;Actually, he went on a long lecture about how we shouldn&#8217;t think of the chimp and human actually being a chimp and human yet.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>The human ancestor would have seemed very ape like to us. And apparently the tiger and lion are similar enough that they can mate but since they are only together in zoos I guess it doesn&#8217;t count. And no, they aren&#8217;t magic.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;That&#8217;s interesting dear.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>In the supermarket I saw pluquats.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>I think they are a cross between plums and kumquats.&#8221; </p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Yeah, well, anyway, then Erica asked if a <st1:State w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Chihuahua</st1:place></st1:State> and a Great Dane could actually, you know, mate. And, if they couldn&#8217;t, were they different species?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>She always asks the best questions.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Now that I&#8217;d like to see!&#8221; said George. &#8220;I bet they couldn&#8217;t fit together!&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Hmmrph, I&#8217;m going to uhh, polish my golf clubs,&#8221; said Dad rising suddenly.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Mom giggled, &#8220;He always gets so nervous when we discuss s-e-x.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>So, what did the teacher say?&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Well, after the boys all stopped laughing, he explained that they might not be able to do it, umm naturally, but their sperm and eggs are compatible. But, if paleontologists in the future found <st1:State w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Chihuahua</st1:place></st1:State> bones and Great Dane bones they would probably consider them different species.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Sounds like the liger dear&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;That&#8217;s what I thought.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>I was going to ask about it at the shelter but Dr. Edwards wasn&#8217;t in.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Anyway, that got us wondering if the <st1:State w:st="on"><st1:place

w:st="on">Chihuahua</st1:place></st1:State> and the Great Dane were different

species like the tiger and the lion.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Then Erica asked if there were any cases of species in the wild that could mate.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Mr. Murray said he read that about 25% of plants and 10% of animals do make hybrids with closely related species.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Mom pulled her finger away from the knife suddenly, &#8220;Hmm, if scientists could cross a tomato and a navel orange&#8230;&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Yeah, anyway, that&#8217;s when Susan said that if they can make hybrids then they are the same species.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Sophia thought that the hybrids are sterile, like a mule but Mr. Edwards point out that there was one who just gave birth. Then <st1:place w:st="on">Tara</st1:place> started chanting &#8216;If you can mate than you didn&#8217;t speciate&#8217;. Mr. Edwards made her stop and then said that the whole species concept is kinda murky.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Just like you!&#8221; muttered George as he left with a tomato slice shoved in his mouth.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Loser,&#8221; said Tammy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8220;Anyway, Elliot was saying that on his farm his family had a smallish Jack Russell terrier that mated with a medium size <st1:State w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Brittany</st1:place></st1:State>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>One of the puppies grew up and mated with the neighbor&#8217;s German Shepard.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>His family was worried because they had always suspected that the Shepard was actually part coyote since it was so vicious and there are coyote in the area.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>In fact, the terrier&#8217;s mom was eaten by a coyote.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>That&#8217;s why they put up that big fence.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Hmm, do they grow tomatoes on that farm?&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Case analysis:<o:p></o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>1. In your Case Study Journal, create a chart with the headings:</p>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0

style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
mso-yfti-tbllook:480;mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:
.5pt solid windowtext;mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'>I Know&#8230;<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:
 solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'>I Think I Know&#8230;<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
 </td>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:
 solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'>I Want to Know&#8230;</span></i><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p></o:p></span></p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 border-top:none;mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
 padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
 </td>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
 mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
 </td>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
 mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
 </td>
</tr>

</table>

<p class=MsoNormal>Think about this case and reflect back on your homework and prior learning. Make as many entries as possible in each column of the chart.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>2. Discuss your list with your group. Add notes to your lists.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>3. Using your textbook make sure you understand the following concepts.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Record definitions and connections to the case in your journal.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>The stages of Natural Selection (as already discussed)</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>Reproductive isolating mechanisms (as listed in the book)</p>

</div>

<span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'><br clear=all style='page-break-before:auto;mso-break-type:section-break'> </span>

<div class=Section2>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Species</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Biological species concept</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>Morphological species concept</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Phylogenetic species concept</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Ecological species concept</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Allopatric speciation</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Sympatric speciation</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Hybrid</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Gene Flow</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Gene Pool</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Taxonomy</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Phylogeny</p>

</div>

<span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'><br clear=all style='page-break-before:auto;mso-break-type:section-break'> </span>

<div class=Section3>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>4. Read these brief articles at these websites:</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Grizzly-Polar Bear Hybrid Found&#8212;But What Does It Mean?<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:2'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/05/polar-bears.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/05/polar-bears.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Did Humans and Chimps Once Interbreed?<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:2'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=mg19025525.000"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=mg19025525.000</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=FR style='mso-ansi-language:FR'>Morocco&#8217;s Miracle Mule<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span lang=FR style='mso-ansi-language:FR'><span style='mso-tab-count:2'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span><a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2290491.stm"><span lang=FR style='mso-ansi-language:FR;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2290491.stm</span></a><span lang=FR style='mso-ansi-language:FR'><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span lang=FR style='mso-ansi-language:FR'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span lang=FR style='mso-ansi-language:FR'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ligers and Tigons </i>(including pictures)</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp;</span><span style='mso-tab-count:2'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/05/2/l_052_02.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/05/2/l_052_02.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>5. Discussion questions (answer these questions in your case journal in preparation for the follow-up class discussion):</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>A. Consider the examples of &#8220;murky species&#8221; mentioned in the case (polar bear/grizzly, dog/coyote, Great Dane/Chihuahua). Apply each of the species concepts to these examples.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Do the concepts differ in their ability to help make sense of the examples?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>B. Does the ability of two species to hybridize indicate anything about how recently they speciated?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>C. Should biologists decide on set number of genetic differences or morphological differences be used to decide if a two populations are different species (or subspecies)?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>D. Are populations that speciate sympatrically more likely to be able hybridize than ones that speciate allopatrically?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>E. Does the presence of hybrids (especially fertile) mean that there is no species barrier?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>F. Can new species be created by hybridization?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>G. Be sure to review reproductive isolating mechanisms very carefully.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>H. Do you think this is an important issue?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>I. Relate your research to the &#8220;want to know&#8221; column.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>What questions can you now answer? </p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>6. For more information, check out the following websites:</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Speciation</i> (from the Understanding Evolution Website)</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/VSpeciation.shtml"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/VSpeciation.shtml</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>What Is A Species And What Is Not</i> by Ernst Mayr</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://darwiniana.org/mayrspecies.htm#Mayr"><span style='text-decoration: none;text-underline:none'>http://darwiniana.org/mayrspecies.htm#Mayr</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A species definition for the modern synthesis </i>by James Mallet</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:2'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.ucl.ac.uk/taxome/jim/pap/mallet95tree.pdf"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.ucl.ac.uk/taxome/jim/pap/mallet95tree.pdf</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Genetics and the origin of species: An&nbsp;introduction</span></i><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> by Francisco Ayala and Walter Finch</span><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:2'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/94/15/7691"><span style='text-decoration: none;text-underline:none'>http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/94/15/7691</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Hybridization As An Invasion Of The Genome b</i>y James Mallet</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.ucl.ac.uk/taxome/jim/pap/mallethyb05.pdf"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.ucl.ac.uk/taxome/jim/pap/mallethyb05.pdf</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp;</span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp;</span>How To Define A Species.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span></i>(posts examining the dog question)</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1999-09/936393054.Ev.q.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1999-09/936393054.Ev.q.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1999-09/936393054.Ev.r.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1999-09/936393054.Ev.r.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2002-05/1021060022.Ge.r.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2002-05/1021060022.Ge.r.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2001-09/999932294.Zo.r.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2001-09/999932294.Zo.r.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp;</span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Evolution Caught In The Act</i> (Galapogos finches)</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.nature.com/news/2006/060710/pf/060710-11_pf.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.nature.com/news/2006/060710/pf/060710-11_pf.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Ligers and Tigons</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.messybeast.com/genetics/new-species.htm"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.messybeast.com/genetics/new-species.htm</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.sierrasafarizoo.com/animals/liger.htm"><span style='text-decoration: none;text-underline:none'>http://www.sierrasafarizoo.com/animals/liger.htm</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>What is a species? (a good primer on speciation, includes red wolf)</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:1.0in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://courses.bio.indiana.edu/S318-brodie/S318%20PPT/S318%20L%2029%20species.pdf"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://courses.bio.indiana.edu/S318-brodie/S318%20PPT/S318%20L%2029%20species.pdf</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'><br clear=all style='page-break-before:always'> </span>

<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Part 2: The Sisterhood of the Rings<o:p></o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>The next morning, Tammy did her usual Saturday volunteer work at the Animal shelter.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>She found the vet working on repairing the wing of a Sea Gull.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Someone found this bird in the mall parking lot, got hit by a car,&#8221; Dr. Edwards explained.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>She had a thriving practice tending to people&#8217;s dogs and cats, but liked to help out at the shelter evenings and weekends.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>The other volunteers loved her energy and knowledge.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8220;It has a broken humerus in this left wing. Even though its humerus is just like that of a dog or cat or us, I doubt I can fix it, bird&#8217;s bones are so fragile, but I&#8217;ll try. You know how I love birds. He probably won&#8217;t fly again. Perhaps we can send it to the zoo. How&#8217;s school?&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>While handing Dr. Edwards tape and gauze, Tammy told Dr. Edwards about her bio class and thinking about species.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8220;So, if animal A can mate with B and B can mate with C, but A and C can&#8217;t mate, who and what is a species?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>It&#8217;s so confusing!&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;You know, Tammy, this gull might be able to help.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Dr. Edwards, the gull seems to have too much on its mind to want to discuss the species concept.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>It&#8217;d be like discussing it with my brother. Yuk, and just as messy.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Okay, let me explain,&#8221; said Dr. Edwards as she readjusted the gull on the table.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8220;Perhaps he&#8217;ll stay still long enough to learn something too.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>This is an American Herring gull.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>It exists in the northern part of <st1:place w:st="on">North America</st1:place>, all across the continent.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>In <st1:country-region w:st="on">England</st1:country-region> and <st1:place w:st="on">Northern Europe</st1:place>, there is the Herring gull.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>It&#8217;s considered to be a different species or subspecies, but it does sometimes hybridize with the American Herring Gull in <st1:country-region w:st="on">Iceland</st1:country-region> and <st1:place w:st="on">Greenland</st1:place>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>The English version is a lighter grey.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>In <st1:State w:st="on">Alaska</st1:State>, the American Herring gull sometimes mates with a gull from far eastern <st1:place w:st="on">Siberia</st1:place>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>It&#8217;s called the Vega herring gull.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>It&#8217;s darker than the American version.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>In <st1:place w:st="on">Siberia</st1:place>, as you head west, the Vega gull is replaced by the darker Birula&#8217;s gull&#8230;&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Let me guess,&#8221; interrupted Tammy, &#8220;They can sometimes hybridize.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Yup, and the Birula&#8217;s range borders on the Heuglin&#8217;s range which borders on the Siberian lesser black backed gull&#8217;s range.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Each one can hybridize and each species is a bit darker than the more eastern one.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>In Northern Europe and <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">England</st1:place></st1:country-region> we find the Lesser black backed gull, which is really dark.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Wait, &#8220;Tammy yelled, while wiping bird droppings off her smock.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>The gull was now safely in a large cage.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8220;You said the plain ole herring gull was there.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Right, but so is the lesser black backed gull, and, these two won&#8217;t mate. Seem&#8217;s the color or something keeps them from mating.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;So, A won&#8217;t mate with G&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Exactly! Biologists call this a ring species.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>They see it as speciation in process.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Perhaps the Lesser Black Backed Gull started it, spread east and lightened up as it did. Now some say this isn&#8217;t a good example because there is some question about whether all the species are evolving from a common ancestor&#8212;the American herring gull may have evolved from a different set of gulls and has converged on the herring gull.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Some birds can hybridize you know.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>But you get the idea.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Genetically, all these birds are pretty similar. Actually, when I did my Master&#8217;s degree I studied bird evolution.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Another good example is some warblers in <st1:place w:st="on">Asia</st1:place>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Oh, and there&#8217;s the famous salamanders in <st1:State w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">California</st1:place></st1:State>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Seems that species can interbreed for a while after their speciation.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Did you hear about how ancestors of the chimps and ancestors of humans interbred for a while after they split up?&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Yeah, but that was when the human and chimp ancestors were barely different.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Could they have been ring species?&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Well, I think the definition of ring species requires a bit more than that, but maybe that&#8217;s how they start. Yup, evolution is interesting! And important. I just read a paper about how evolution in heart worm is interfering with medicines.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>But that&#8217;s a discussion for another day. Hope the explanation of the gull ring species cleared some things up.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Thanks for the help.&#8221;<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Dr Edwards left to help a bulldog that had slipped on some ice.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8216;Yeah, it helped,&#8217; thought Tammy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8216;But are those gulls A species or G species? And is species singular or plural, anyway?&#8217;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Case analysis:<o:p></o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>1. In your Case Study Journal, create a chart with the headings:</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0

style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
mso-yfti-tbllook:480;mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:
.5pt solid windowtext;mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'>I Know&#8230;<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p>
 </td>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:
 solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'>I Think I Know&#8230;<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
 </td>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:
 solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
 style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'>I Want to Know&#8230;<o:p></o:p></span></i></p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 border-top:none;mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
 padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
 </td>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
 mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
 </td>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
 mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
 </td>
</tr>

</table>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Think about this case and reflect back on your homework and prior learning. Make as many entries as possible in each column of the chart.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>2. Discuss your list with your group. Add notes to your lists.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>3. Using your textbook make sure you understand the following concepts.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Record definitions and connections to the case in your journal.</p>

</div>

<span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'><br clear=all style='page-break-before:auto;mso-break-type:section-break'> </span>

<div class=Section4>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>Ring species</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Cline</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>Sexual selection</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Disruptive selection</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Stabilizing selection</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Directional selection</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Divergent evolution</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Convergent evolution</p>

</div>

<span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'><br clear=all style='page-break-before:auto;mso-break-type:section-break'> </span>

<div class=Section5>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>4. Read the brief articles at the following websites:</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Larus Gulls Circumpolar Species Ring<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://darwiniana.org/zimmergulls.htm"><span style='text-decoration:none; text-underline:none'>http://darwiniana.org/zimmergulls.htm</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ring Species </i>(from the PBS Evolution Website)</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/05/2/l_052_05.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/05/2/l_052_05.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Evolving Before our eyes<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/03/26/MN172778.DTL"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/03/26/MN172778.DTL</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ring Species: Unusual Demonstrations of Speciation<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/irwin.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/irwin.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ring Species and Clinal variation<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://darwiniana.org/rings.htm#Rings"><span style='text-decoration:none; text-underline:none'>http://darwiniana.org/rings.htm#Rings</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>5. Discussion questions (answer these questions in your case journal in preparation for the follow-up class discussion):</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>A. Why do biologists like to study ring species?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>B. What would happen if a highway or shopping mall prevented the interbreeding of parts of the ring species?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>C. Should members of a ring species be considered separate species, separate subspecies or just one species?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>D. The expanding desert in <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">China</st1:place></st1:country-region> has broken the ring of the greenish warblers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Should the species that has lost connection to the rest now be thought of as a different species?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>E. What selections are driving the evolution of the salamanders and warblers?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Are these cases of sympatric or allopatric speciation?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.75in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l5 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list .75in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-family: Times'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>F.<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]>The two northern (incompatible) species of warblers live in similar environments and</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>have evolved similar traits to each other (diverging from the common southern ancestor).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Doesn&#8217;t speciation only occur when a species adapts to a different environment?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>G. Relate your research to the &#8220;want to know&#8221; column.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>What questions can you now answer?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>6. For more information, check out the following websites:</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Greenish Warbler Ring Species<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~irwin/GreenishWarblers.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~irwin/GreenishWarblers.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><u>Ensatina eschscholtzi</u>: Speciation In Progres</i>s</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.santarosa.edu/lifesciences2/ensatina2.htm#gradualism"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.santarosa.edu/lifesciences2/ensatina2.htm#gradualism</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ring Specie</i>s</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/ring-species"><span style='text-decoration: none;text-underline:none'>http://www.answers.com/topic/ring-species</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Levels Of Selection And Speciation Mechanisms <o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'>(scroll to section on ring species in gulls and ring species in salamanders)</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/~barrylab/classes/animal_behavior/SPECIATE.HTM"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/~barrylab/classes/animal_behavior/SPECIATE.HTM</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Auk: Overview: Circular Overlaps: Rare demonstrations of speciation</i>.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3793/is_200207/ai_n9133429/print"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3793/is_200207/ai_n9133429/print</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ring Species As Bridges Between Microevolution And Speciation.<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:2'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~irwin/PDFs/IrwinIrwin%26Price2001.pdf"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~irwin/PDFs/IrwinIrwin%26Price2001.pdf</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<span style='font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'><br clear=all style='page-break-before:always'> </span>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:1.0in'>Part 3:<span style='mso-tab-count: 1'>&nbsp; </span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>The Mouse That Caused the Roar</b><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>On Sunday, Tammy and her family were having their usual Sunday breakfast at Bauer&#8217;s Diner.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>The TV over the counter was tuned to a news channel.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>As usual, <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place

w:st="on">Sandy</st1:place></st1:City> was working the counter; pouring coffee

while loudly commenting on the news stories to the men hunched over their coffees.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>The news anchor was talking to a person seen in a small monitor in the upper right corner of the screen. Another person could be seen in a monitor in the lower right. Tammy heard a word that caught her attention.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;&#8230;species!<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>I mean if they can&#8217;t prove it is a different species I don&#8217;t see why it should be on the list,&#8221; said the person in the upper monitor.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>As Tammy listened to the story she teased out some of the details.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>The Secretary of the Interior wanted to remove the Preble&#8217;s meadow jumping mouse from the endangered species list.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>It is found in areas of <st1:State w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Colorado</st1:place></st1:State> and was interfering with construction of housing and retail developments.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>A biologist hired by the Interior Department had determined Preble&#8217;s mouse was not that genetically different from another, more plentiful species of jumping mouse.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Now, another study was contradicting that finding.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;The department and its scientists are just promoting the President&#8217;s pro-development agenda!<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>This is not how science should be done,&#8221; said the person in the lower monitor.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;I don&#8217;t think that any reasonable person wants to see the whales go extinct, but we are talking about a mouse that may not actually be a species.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>The Endangered Species Act does not protect hybrids&#8221; said the upper speaker.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;This mouse is not a hybrid.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>The Act protects endangered species and all subspecies of an endangered species. This mouse is either its own species or a subspecies of another&#8230;&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;&#8230;Mouse species that is not endangered and therefore should not be protected. Look at what has gone on with the Red Wolf!&#8221; the man in the upper screen interrupted.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>The man in the lower corner looked frustrated, &#8220;But, it is different and part of the biodiversity! It may be an endangered species or we may be seeing speciation. It may be evolving&#8230;&#8221; </p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Sandy</st1:place></st1:City> changed the channel with a stab of the clicker. &#8220;Who cares!&#8221; she said, &#8220;It&#8217;s just a mouse and don&#8217;t give me any of that evolving stuff!&#8221; She seemed to be yelling at a guy with a trucker hat who was stirring his coffee and looking at another waitress.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8220;Anyway, it could only be a different species if it was created that way.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>One species does not become another one! And if you ask me one mouse is the same kind as another! If they can mate then they havta be the same species just the way they we created. Mice don&#8217;t change over time.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;George, will you lower that!&#8221; yelled Mom.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>George put down the pitcher of maple syrup he was holding high over extending tongue.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;I don&#8217;t think it should matter if it is its own species,&#8221; said Tammy, not sure if anyone in her family was listening.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>&#8220;Species boundaries are kinda real and kinda man made, but it is important that we preserve the gene pool.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;No, dear, you can&#8217;t wear your jeans in the pool.&#8221; said Dad as he looked up over the newspaper.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;No, I&#8217;m talking about why it shouldn&#8217;t matter what species it is.&#8221;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Actually, Sis,&#8221; said George, with one eye on the blonde girl wearing a shirt that said &#8216;HERBIVORE&#8221; at the next table. &#8220;It would appear that classification and species designation is important if it can be used justify habitat destruction and promote the intelligent design agenda.&#8221;<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>George glanced over at the blonde with an arch to his right eyebrow.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Tammy opened her mouth.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Dad looked up over the newspaper, and Mom cried ouch as she dropped her knife.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&#8220;Check please!&#8221; Dad called out.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>That night Tammy did an internet search on Preble&#8217;s meadow jumping mouse.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Case analysis:<o:p></o:p></b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>1. In your Case Study Journal, create a chart with the headings:</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0

style='border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;
mso-yfti-tbllook:480;mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:
.5pt solid windowtext;mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext'>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'>I Know&#8230;<o:p></o:p></span></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:
 solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'>I think I
 know&#8230;<o:p></o:p></span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=213 valign=top style='width:159.6pt;border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;
 border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-alt:
 solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
 <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Comic Sans MS"'>I want to
 know&#8230;..<o:p></o:p></span></p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
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<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Think about this case and reflect back on your homework and prior learning. Make as many entries as possible in each column of the chart.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>2. Discuss your list with your group. Add notes to your lists.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>3. Read the brief articles at the following websites:</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Status Of Threatened Mouse On Trial<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_4021577"><span style='text-decoration: none;text-underline:none'>http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_4021577</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Western Business Roundtable: FWS Long Past Due In Delisting Mo</i>use</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.eastvalleytribune.com/index.php?sty=68367"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.eastvalleytribune.com/index.php?sty=68367</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>FAQ Preble&#8217;s Meadow Jumping Mouse<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.voiceforthewild.org/wildspecies/news/n17dec03.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.voiceforthewild.org/wildspecies/news/n17dec03.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Government Postpones Decision On Jumping Mouse Status<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,185418,00.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,185418,00.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Subspecies Fight For Space On Protected List </i>(listen to news story)<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5028780"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5028780</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>5. Discussion questions (answer these questions in your case journal in preparation for the class discussion):</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>A. Why should we protect endangered species?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>B. Is it more important to preserve the organisms or the genes?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>C. Why is protecting subspecies and hybrids more controversial than protecting species?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>D. If one member of a ring species was endangered, but other members were plentiful, should the endangered member be protected?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>E. Why would those who do not believe in the evolution of species (macroevolution) have difficulty with idea of preserving of subspecies or members of a ring species?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'>F. Relate your research to the &#8220;want to know&#8221; column.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>What questions can you now answer?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>6. <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Written Assignment:</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Write a 5 paragraph essay in which you argue for the importance of government funding of research into evolution (especially research into phylogenetic relationships and speciation).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>&nbsp; </span>Include three well supported arguments based in evolutionary science.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>7. For more information, check out the following websites:</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Red Wolf: Is It A True Species?<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://canidae.ca/MTDNA.HTM"><span style='text-decoration:none; text-underline:none'>http://canidae.ca/MTDNA.HTM</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Arizona Agave </i>[a hybrid]<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> Taken Off The Endangered Species List<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.eastvalleytribune.com/index.php?sty=68367"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.eastvalleytribune.com/index.php?sty=68367</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Hybridization: The Double Edged Threat</i>?</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.canids.org/PUBLICAT/CNDNEWS3/hybridiz.htm"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.canids.org/PUBLICAT/CNDNEWS3/hybridiz.htm</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Speciation and Biodiversity</i> (an interview with E.O. Wilson)</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><a href="http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/wilson.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/wilson.html</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Systematics And Endangered Species Conservation<o:p></o:p></i></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><a href="http://darwin.eeb.uconn.edu/eeb310/lecture-notes/systematics/systematics.html"><span style='text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://darwin.eeb.uconn.edu/eeb310/lecture-notes/systematics/systematics.html</span></a></p>

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