Salomon Garcia:Week 7
Outline For Journal Club 1
Our group is doing article 4 that involves V.cholerae
Title of Article: Host-induced epidemic spread of the cholera bacterium
Authors :D. Scott Merrell*†, Susan M. Butler*, Firdausi Qadri‡, Nadia A. Dolganov§, Ahsfaqul Alam‡, Mitchell B. Cohenk, Stephen B. Calderwood,Gary K. Schoolnik§ & Andrew Camilli*
- What is the main result presented in this paper? (Hint: look at the last sentence of the introduction and restate it in plain English.)---- The main purpose of this articles was that there were unique physical and behavoral changes with V. cholerae that were shown in the high expression of genes.
- What is the importance or significance of this work?---- The importance of this work is that theses scientists are trying to find ways to fend of these serious bacteria that is known to cause deaths especially in areas of developing countries as is the case with Bangladesh where most of the subjects were gotten for this experiment.
- What were the limitations in previous studies that led them to perform this work?---- They did not reference any previous studies, but the main casue that led them to do their work was for the reason that there is little information known about this bacteria and how it works and functions that they decided to further investigate.
- What were the methods used in the study?---- The methods used in this study involved several subjects, there stool samples, and several mice that after a certain period of time were euthanized and there stomachs were extracted in order to further investigate the growth of V.cholerae.
- Briefly state the result shown in each of the figures and tables.---- Several of the tables showed the subjects that were used and the information that was received from there findings and how V.cholerae functions.
- How do the results of this study compare to the results of previous studies (See Discussion). ---- The authors of this article did not mention any previous studies that they may have referenced. Some of the key things that they did mention though was that they followed protocols when it came to there human subjects and the testing that they were involved in.
Ten Words that are new to me from the Article
- Hyperinfectious-repeated reinfection in the body due to the ability of various parasites to complete life cycle in a single host. 
- O1 Inaba El Tor- is the main strain that causes the cholera. 
- Swiss Webster Mice- it's a type of mouse that feeds a lot and excretes large amounts of waste.
- gavage- forced feeding 
- virulence genes- a gene whose presence or activity in an organism's genome is responsible for the pathogenicity of an infective agent.
- chemotaxis- is the phenomenon in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment
- Shine Delgarno sequence-is a ribosomal binding site in the mRNA, generally located 8 basepairs upstream of the start codon AUG 
- linker proteins-proteins that provide mechanisms by which receptors can amplify and regulate downstream effector proteins
- chemoattractants-elicited via described or hypothetic chemotaxis receptors, the chemoattractant moiety of a ligand is target cell specific and concentration dependent
- genomic annotation-The process of identifying the locations of genes and all of the coding regions in a genome and determining what those genes do.