Printing Processes and Technologies - Paige Liu

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CHEM-ENG 590E: Microfluidics and Microscale Analysis in Materials and Biology

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Overview

The vast majority of 3D printing technologies can be grouped broadly into these seven categories[1]:

  • Vat photopolymerization
  • Powder bed fusion
  • Extrusion
  • Material jetting
  • Binder jetting
  • Sheet lamination
  • Directed energy deposition

Vat Photopolymerization

Photopolymers are liquid resins that solidify upon exposure to radiation, such as UV light[2]. True to its name, vat photopolymerization uses these resins in a vat with moving platform to create a desired part by irradiating the part layer-by-layer[3]. Different methods are used to irradiate these photopolymers so that the desired part can be manufactured.

Powder Bed Fusion

Powder bed fusion (PBF) methods use either a laser or electron beam to melt and fuse layers of powdered material together[4]. This is done in an additive process to create the desired part.

Extrusion

Systems based on extrusion are currently the most popular 3D printing systems on the market. Typically for this process, material is melted in a portable chamber, then pushed through with a tractor-feed system to extrude the material to form parts[5].

Material Jetting

Material jetting is a process similar to that of a two-dimensional inkjet printer. Material is jetted from a nozzle onto a build surface or platform where it solidifies so that the material can be built layer by layer[6].

Binder Jetting

Binder jetting also utilizes a powder bed to make parts, but in contrast to powder bed fusion methods, which use lasers to melt powder particles, a binder is used to form part cross sections[7].

Sheet Lamination

Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) uses layers of paper material sheets, bonded by polymer adhesive. Each sheet is cut with a CO2 laser to represent one cross-section of the CAD part model[8]. There are other LOM based processes using different build materials and cutting strategies.

Directed Energy Deposition

In directed energy deposition (DED), parts are made by melting the build material as it is deposited[9]. This method is typically used with metal substrates although other materials such as polymers, ceramics, and composite materials can be used in this process as well.

References

  1. Gibson, I., Rosen, D. W. & Stucker, B. Vat Photopolymerization Processes. in Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing 63–106 (Springer, 2015). doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1120-9
  2. Gibson, I., Rosen, D. W. & Stucker, B. Vat Photopolymerization Processes. in Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing 63–106 (Springer, 2015). doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1120-9
  3. VAT Photopolymerisation. About Additive Manufacturing Available at: https://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/amrg/about/the7categoriesofadditivemanufacturing/vatphotopolymerisation/
  4. Powder Bed Fusion. About Additive Manufacturing Available at: https://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/amrg/about/the7categoriesofadditivemanufacturing/powderbedfusion/
  5. Gibson, I., Rosen, D. W. & Stucker, B. Extrusion-Based Systems. in Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing 167–193 (Springer, 2015). doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2113-3
  6. Material Jetting. About Additive Manufacturing Available at: https://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/amrg/about/the7categoriesofadditivemanufacturing/materialjetting/
  7. Gibson, I., Rosen, D. W. & Stucker, B. Binder Jetting. in Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing 205–218 (Springer, 2015). doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2113-3
  8. Gibson, I., Rosen, D. W. & Stucker, B. Sheet Lamination Processes. in Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing 219–244 (Springer, 2015). doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2113-3
  9. Gibson, I., Rosen, D. W. & Stucker, B. Directed Energy Deposition Processes. in Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing 245–268 (Springer, 2015). doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2113-3