IGEM:IMPERIAL/2009/Encapsulation/Phase2/Xanthan Gum

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Xantham Gum for another encapsulation option


Food thickening agent

  • approved by FDA back in 1965
  • well characterised


Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is a plant- pathogenic bacterium that produces the exopolysaccharide xantham gum.

Xantham gum structure.jpg


similar to E.coli up till the GDP-Mannose stage.

Xantham biosynthetic.jpg


no papers were found for encapsulation by itself.
all (3 papers) have been complexing with chitosan to form polyelectrolyte complex.

Xanthan-chitosan PEC gels were studied as microcarriers mostly for encapsulation of enzymes and the studies on the
applicability of the system for bacterial cells are scarce [1]

The cell release in SGF at pH 2.0 was negligible suggesting that xanthan-chitosan capsules have a good potential for delivery of probiotic cells to intestines.[1]

Results indicated that probiotic bacteria encapsulated in alginate, xanthan gum, and carrageenan gum survived better (P < 0.05) than free probiotic bacteria, under acidic conditions [2]

Useful papers

  1. Ding WK and Shah NP. Effect of various encapsulating materials on the stability of probiotic bacteria. J Food Sci. 2009 Mar;74(2):M100-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01067.x | PubMed ID:19323757 | HubMed [Xantham1]
  1. http://www.lib.umd.edu/drum/bitstream/1903/7826/1/umi-umd-5112.pdf [Xantham2]