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Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics: Biology

  1. Qian H. Phosphorylation energy hypothesis: open chemical systems and their biological functions. Annu Rev Phys Chem. 2007;58:113-42. DOI:10.1146/annurev.physchem.58.032806.104550 | PubMed ID:17059360 | HubMed [PhosphoEnergy]


Existing Models of Exercise

  1. Cheng TM, Savkin AV, Celler BG, Wang L, and Su SW. A nonlinear dynamic model for heart rate response to treadmill walking exercise. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:2988-91. DOI:10.1109/IEMBS.2007.4352957 | PubMed ID:18002623 | HubMed [2state]
  2. Lamarra N, Ward SA, and Whipp BJ. Model implications of gas exchange dynamics on blood gases in incremental exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1989 Apr;66(4):1539-46. DOI:10.1152/jappl.1989.66.4.1539 | PubMed ID:2499567 | HubMed [gasex]
All Medline abstracts: PubMed | HubMed

Other Heart Rate Models:

  1. Olufsen MS, Alston AV, Tran HT, Ottesen JT, and Novak V. Modeling heart rate regulation--part I: sit-to-stand versus head-up tilt. Cardiovasc Eng. 2008 Jun;8(2):73-87. DOI:10.1007/s10558-007-9050-8 | PubMed ID:18064571 | HubMed [5state]

Models of Metabolism in Exercise:

  1. Cabrera ME, Saidel GM, and Kalhan SC. Lactate metabolism during exercise: analysis by an integrative systems model. Am J Physiol. 1999 Nov;277(5):R1522-36. DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.1999.277.5.R1522 | PubMed ID:10564227 | HubMed [lactate]
  2. Lai N, Camesasca M, Saidel GM, Dash RK, and Cabrera ME. Linking pulmonary oxygen uptake, muscle oxygen utilization and cellular metabolism during exercise. Ann Biomed Eng. 2007 Jun;35(6):956-69. DOI:10.1007/s10439-007-9271-4 | PubMed ID:17380394 | HubMed [pulmonary]
  3. H, Lai N, Saidel GM, and Cabrera ME. Multi-scale model of O2 transport and metabolism: response to exercise. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008 Mar; 1123 178-86.

All Medline abstracts: PubMed | HubMed

Current Views of Heart Rate Variability (The Chaos View):

  1. Platisa MM and Gal V. Reflection of heart rate regulation on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability measures. Physiol Meas. 2006 Feb;27(2):145-54. DOI:10.1088/0967-3334/27/2/005 | PubMed ID:16400201 | HubMed [platisa]
  2. Goldberger AL, Amaral LA, Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PCh, Peng CK, and Stanley HE. Fractal dynamics in physiology: alterations with disease and aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):2466-72. DOI:10.1073/pnas.012579499 | PubMed ID:11875196 | HubMed [goldberger02]
  3. Sandercock GR, Bromley PD, and Brodie DA. Effects of exercise on heart rate variability: inferences from meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Mar;37(3):433-9. DOI:10.1249/01.mss.0000155388.39002.9d | PubMed ID:15741842 | HubMed [meta]
All Medline abstracts: PubMed | HubMed

Critical Power Models

  1. Morton RH. The critical power and related whole-body bioenergetic models. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Mar;96(4):339-54. DOI:10.1007/s00421-005-0088-2 | PubMed ID:16284785 | HubMed [mortonreview]
  2. Dekerle J, Brickley G, Hammond AJ, Pringle JS, and Carter H. Validity of the two-parameter model in estimating the anaerobic work capacity. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Feb;96(3):257-64. DOI:10.1007/s00421-005-0074-8 | PubMed ID:16261386 | HubMed [2pvalidity]
All Medline abstracts: PubMed | HubMed

More readings here.


  1. Rubino F. Is type 2 diabetes an operable intestinal disease? A provocative yet reasonable hypothesis. Diabetes Care. 2008 Feb;31 Suppl 2:S290-6. DOI:10.2337/dc08-s271 | PubMed ID:18227499 | HubMed [gastro]
  2. Booth FW, Laye MJ, Lees SJ, Rector RS, and Thyfault JP. Reduced physical activity and risk of chronic disease: the biology behind the consequences. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008 Mar;102(4):381-90. DOI:10.1007/s00421-007-0606-5 | PubMed ID:17987311 | HubMed [rats]
All Medline abstracts: PubMed | HubMed