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   <th><a href="www.ncsu.edu"><img src = "http://www.thesciencehouse.org/k-12-students/Summer%20Camp%20Logos/ncsuwolf.jpg" width="250"></a></th>
   <th><a href="http://www.mse.ncsu.edu/"><img src = "http://www.mse.ncsu.edu/public/images/mse-logo.png" width="625"></a></th>
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</table> <h1>Team DNAbeans 2014</h1>

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    <th bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><center><font size="+2"><a href="http://openwetware.org/wiki/Biomod/2014/DNAbeans"><span style="color:#CC0000">DNAbeans</span></a></font></center></th>
    <th bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><center><font size="+2"><a href="http://openwetware.org/wiki/BIOMODteam.html"><span style="color:#CC0000">Team</span></a></font></center></th>
    <th bgcolor="#CC0000"><center><font size="+2"><a href="http://openwetware.org/wiki/DNAbeansProject.html"><span style="color:#FFFFFF">Project</span></a></font></center></th>
    <th bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><center><font size="+2"><a href="http://openwetware.org/wiki/BIOMODlabwork.html"><span style="color:#CC0000">Labwork</span></a></font></center></th> 
    <th bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><center><font size="+2"><a href="http://openwetware.org/wiki/BIOMOD2013"><span style="color:#CC0000">BIOMOD2013</span></a></font></center></th>    
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<div style="float:LEFT;margin:5 20px 5px 5;"> <img src="http://i.imgur.com/TnhOn8H.jpg" width="500" ><figcaption>Figure 1</figcaption></div>

<p style="line-height:200%; font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:145%"> <span style="font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:160%"> <em> Electrospinning</em> <br> </span>In order to accomplish the macroscale alignment of our heterodimers, we deposited them into polymer fibers through the process of electrospinning. For electrospinning, the heterodimers are first suspended in polyethylene oxide.The polymer solution is then slowly extruded from a syringe as a voltage is applied. This voltage causes the solution to jet across a gap and deposit onto a collector positioned a short distance away. While in the air, the solvent from the solution evaporated, leaving only the thin polymer fibers to deposit onto the collector as a mat. A schematic of such a setup is shown in figure 1. Our heterodimers are imbedded within these polymers, aligned along the fiber centers. Previous work has shown it is possible to electrospin gold and quantum dot nanorods/nanoparticles successfully using such a method, as illustrated in figures 2 and 3. </p>

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<div style="float:RIGHT;margin:5 20px 5px 5;"> <img src="http://i.imgur.com/GCM5KAl.jpg" width="300" ><figcaption>Figure 2</figcaption></div>

<p style="line-height:200%; font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:145%"> <span style="font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:160%"> <em> Quantum Dots</em> <br> </span>Quantum dots are a category of semiconducting nanoparticle with highly tunable optical and electronic properties. The unique properties of the quantum dots are due to their diameter being smaller than the Bohr radius. The Bohr radius is the distance at which electrons orbit a nucleus. At sizes this small, the electrons of the particle are said to be “confined”, resulting in a highly sensitive bandgap which can be tuned precisely by varying particle size. </p>

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<div style="float:LEFT;margin:5 20px 5px 5;"> <img src="http://i.imgur.com/gDD1ukx.jpg" width="300" ><figcaption>Figure 3</figcaption></div>

<p style="line-height:200%; font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:145%"> <span style="font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:160%"> <em> Gold Nanorods</em> <br> </span>Gold nanorods are a specific class of metallic nanoparticle created by anisotropically growing spherical gold nanoparticles. These nanorods are approximately 80nm long, and 20nm wide. They are functionalized with citrate, which stabilizes them in solution. Gold nanorods are unique due to their unique optical and electronic properties. These properties are the result of surface plasmon resonances created by the oscillations of conduction band electrons in subwavelength metallic nanostructures. These surface plasmon resonances are particularly interesting in that two separate plasmon bands emerge when looking at the absorbance spectra of gold nanorods: one for the shorter, transverse axis of the rods, and one for the longer, longitudinal axis. </p>

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<div style="float:RIGHT;margin:5 20px 5px 5;"> <img src="http://i.imgur.com/SUxJOyS.jpg" width="300" ><figcaption>Figure 4</figcaption></div>

<p style="line-height:200%; font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:145%"> <span style="font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:160%"> <em> Functionalizing DNA Origami </em> <br> </span>DNA is the building block of life. Composed of nucleotides arranged in a regular pattern, DNA encodes the recipes for proteins inside its double helix structure. Each single strand is matched by its own complementary strand of bases following the pairing rule of Adenine to Thymine and Guanine to Cytocine. </p>

<p style="line-height:200%; font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:145%">When the helix is unzipped and the single strands of DNA are separated this binding code can be used to develop a self assembly method by taking advantage of the nucleotides’ preferential bonding. To accomplish this we use a single long strand of DNA called the scaffold strand which is folded upon itself through the use of short complementary strands called staple strands. These short strands pinch the scaffold strand into the desired shape. For this experiment we use a rectangle which rolls up upon itself after the addition of gold nanorods. </p>

<div style="float:LEFT;margin:5 20px 5px 5;"> <img src="http://i.imgur.com/b4VcGst.jpg" width="300" ><figcaption>Figure 5</figcaption></div>

<p style="line-height:200%; font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:145%"> Single strands of DNA can also be attached to nanoparticles like gold nanorods and quantum dots to give them directed self assembly as the linker strands will. By attaching a single strand to the gold nanorods and a complementary strand to the DNA origami the nanoparticles can be directed to a specific location or in a specific arrangement on a DNA origami. These arrangements can be exploited to develop novel properties. They can be used to place particles within close proximity allowing for plasmonic resonance between the nanoparticls. </p>

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<div style="float:RIGHT;margin:5 20px 5px 5;"> <img src="http://i.imgur.com/VAQBrAF.jpg" width="400" ><figcaption>Figure 6</figcaption></div>

<p style="line-height:200%; font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:145%"> <span style="font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:160%"> <em> Plasmons </em> <br> </span>Plasmons belong to the same class of quantified energy packet as the photon and phonon. Plasmons are the discrete energy unit of electron oscillations. These oscillations occur in metallic nanoparticles when stimuli from the environment push the electrons from one side of the particle to the other. This sets up a spring-like system of oscillations as the electrons flow from one side to the opposite. </p>

<p style="line-height:200%; font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:145%"> The stimuli in our experiment is light. Our nanoparticles are too small to interact with light via reflection, refraction, and deflection. Rather as the electromagnetic wave passes by the particle the electrons are pushed away from the electromagnetic wave as shown in the image above. By utilizing the surface plasmons in the way nanoparticles can be used to interact with light that has wavelengths larger than the particles in question. A good example is the stained glass windows found in cathedrals. The colloid of gold nanoparticles within the glass produce different colors depending on the size of the particles and concentration. </p>

<div style="float:LEFT;margin:5 20px 5px 5;"> <img src="http://i.imgur.com/sVFPOBk.jpg" width="400" ><figcaption>Figure 7</figcaption></div>

<p style="line-height:200%; font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif, Impact, Charcoal; font-size:145%"> Plasmons can also be used as a means of communication between particles. Surface plasmon resonance refers to the influence one particle’s plasmonic oscillations has on another nearby particle. As the electrons move from one side to another they create a changing electric field which can influence the neighbor particle’s plasmons. Neighboring particles or molecules can either enhance or quench the reactions of their partners resulting in a noticeable difference that is measurable. This can be used in sensory applications to detect drugs present in small concentrations. Plasmons are a discrete energy unit found on the nanoscale that can be exploited to use novel properties. </p>

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<p>Figure 1 -- Garth, W. Electrospinning, Virginia Tech University, <a href="http://www.che.vt.edu/Faculty/Wilkes/GLW/electrospinning/electrspinning.html">Figure 1 -- Garth, W. Electrospinning, Virginia Tech University, http://www.che.vt.edu/Faculty/Wilkes/GLW/electrospinning/electrspinning.html</a> </p> <p>Figure 2 – H. Liu, J.B. Edel, L.M. Bellan, H.G. Craighead, Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers as Subwavelength Optical Waveguides Incorporating Quantum Dots, Small, 2006, 4, 495-499. </p> <p>Figure 3 -- S. Maity, K.A. Kozek, W. Wu, J.B. Tracy, J.R. Bochinski, L.I. Clarke, Anisotropic Thermal Processing of Polymer Nanocomposites via the Photothermal Effect of Gold Nanorods, Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 2013, 30, 193-202. </p> <p><a href="http://i.imgur.com/SUxJOyS.jpg">Figure 4</a></p>

<p><a href="http://i.imgur.com/b4VcGst.jpg">Figure 5</a></p>

<p><a href="http://i.imgur.com/VAQBrAF.jpg">Figure 6</a></p>

<p><a href="http://i.imgur.com/sVFPOBk.jpg">Figure 7</a></p>

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