Codon pairs

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Apparently there is nonrandom codon pair utilization in many species. Codon pairs may affect translational elongation rates and therefore protein production. (There can be translational pause sites that are species-specific.)

CODA genomics checks and optimizes for such things.

(Note: I haven't read the papers to evaluate this claim. Just posting the info here so that I remember it.)


  1. Gutman GA and Hatfield GW. Nonrandom utilization of codon pairs in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 May;86(10):3699-703. DOI:10.1073/pnas.86.10.3699 | PubMed ID:2657727 | HubMed [Gutman-PNAS-1989]
  2. Irwin B, Heck JD, and Hatfield GW. Codon pair utilization biases influence translational elongation step times. J Biol Chem. 1995 Sep 29;270(39):22801-6. DOI:10.1074/jbc.270.39.22801 | PubMed ID:7559409 | HubMed [Irwin-JBC-1995]
  3. Trinh R, Gurbaxani B, Morrison SL, and Seyfzadeh M. Optimization of codon pair use within the (GGGGS)3 linker sequence results in enhanced protein expression. Mol Immunol. 2004 Jan;40(10):717-22. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2003.08.006 | PubMed ID:14644097 | HubMed [Trinh-MolImmun-2004]

All Medline abstracts: PubMed | HubMed