Codon bias

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Codons can be biased depending on the neighboring codon. In E. coli, the following are some of the most marked effects for a codon depending on the nucleotide that follows:

  • Lysine: AAA-G > AAG-G and AAG-C > AAA-C
  • Glutamate: GAA-G > GAG-G adn GAG-C > GAA-C
  • Glycine: GGC-G > (GGG-G, GGA-G, GGT-G) and GGT-A > (GGT-C, GGT-T, GGT-G)
  • Phenylalanine: TTT-G > TTC-G