Bitan:PICUP

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<p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt'><a href="http://www.jove.com/index/details.stp?id=1071">Photo-Induced Cross-Linking of Unmodified Proteins (PICUP) Applied to Amyloidogenic Peptides</a><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:normal'>Rahimi F, Maiti P, Bitan G (2009). Photo-Induced Cross-Linking of Unmodified Proteins (PICUP) Applied to Amyloidogenic Peptides. JoVE. 23. <a href="http://www.jove.com/index/details.stp?id=1071">http://www.jove.com/index/details.stp?id=1071</a><span style='font-size:18.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:normal'>Farid Rahimi</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>Department of Neurology</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>David Geffen School of Medicine</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>University of California, Los Angeles</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>frahimi@ucla.edu</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:normal'>Panchanan Maiti</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>Department of Neurology</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>David Geffen School of Medicine</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>University of California, Los Angeles</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>pmaiti@ucla.edu</p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Gal Bitan</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>Department of Neurology</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>Brain Research Institute</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>Molecular Biology Institute</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>University of California, Los Angeles</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>gbitan@mednet.ucla.edu</p>

<p class=listparagraph style='margin-left:0cm'>&nbsp;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>Corresponding author:</b><span style='font-weight:normal'> Gal Bitan</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&nbsp;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>Keywords:</b><span style='font-weight:normal'>

cross-linking, PICUP, amyloid &#946;-protein, oligomer, amyloid, protein assembly</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&nbsp;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>Short Abstract:</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) allows<i> </i><span style='font-style:normal'>characterization of oligomer size distribution in metastable protein mixtures. We demonstrate application of PICUP to three representative amyloidogenic peptides&#8212;the 40- and 42-residue forms of amyloid &#946;-protein, and calcitonin, and a control peptide&#8212;growth-hormone&#8211;releasing factor.</span></p>

<span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US'><b><br clear=ALL style='page-break-before:always'> </b></span>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>Long Abstract:</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>The assembly of amyloidogenic proteins into toxic oligomers is a seminal event in the pathogenesis of protein misfolding diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases, hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. Owing to the metastable nature of these protein assemblies, it is difficult to assess their oligomer size distribution quantitatively using classical methods, such as electrophoresis, chromatography, fluorescence, or dynamic light scattering. Oligomers of amyloidogenic proteins exist as metastable mixtures, in which the oligomers dissociate into monomers and associate into larger assemblies simultaneously. PICUP stabilizes oligomer populations by covalent cross-linking and when combined with fractionation methods, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate&#8211;polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), PICUP provides snapshots of the oligomer size distributions that existed before cross-linking. Hence, PICUP enables visualization and quantitative analysis of metastable protein populations and can be used to monitor assembly and decipher relationships between sequence modifications and oligomerization<sup>1</sup>. Mechanistically, PICUP involves photo-oxidation of Ru<sup>2+</sup> in a tris(bipyridyl)Ru(II) complex (RuBpy) to Ru<sup>3+</sup> by irradiation with visible light in the presence of an electron acceptor. Ru<sup>3+</sup> is a strong one-electron oxidizer capable of abstracting an electron from a neighboring protein molecule, generating a protein radical<sup>1,2</sup>. Radicals are unstable, highly-reactive species and therefore disappear rapidly through a variety of intra- and intermolecular reactions. A radical may utilize the high energy of an unpaired electron to react with another protein monomer forming a dimeric radical, which subsequently loses a hydrogen atom and forms a stable, covalently-linked dimer. The dimer may then react further through a similar mechanism with monomers or other dimers to form higher-order oligomers. Advantages of PICUP relative to other photo- or chemical cross-linking methods<sup>3,4</sup>

include short (≤1 s) exposure to non-destructive visible light, no need for <i>pre facto</i><span style='font-style:normal'> modification of the native sequence, and “zero-length” covalent cross-linking. In addition, PICUP enables cross-linking of proteins within wide pH and temperature ranges, including physiologic parameters. Here, we demonstrate application of PICUP to cross-linking of three amyloidogenic proteins&#8212;the 40- and 42-residue amyloid &#946;-protein variants (A&#946;40 and A&#946;42), and calcitonin, and a control protein, growth-hormone&#8211;releasing factor (GRF).</span></p>

<span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US'><br clear=ALL style='page-break-before:always'> </span>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt'><b>Protocol:</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><b>Part 1: Peptide preparation</b></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><a name="OLE_LINK1"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>1.1) Weigh out ~100&#8211;200 &#956;g of lyophilized peptide using a microbalance and transfer into labeled, silicon-coated, low-adsorbent microfuge tubes. Here, we use the human sequences of A&#946;40, A&#946;42, calcitonin, and GRF.</span></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>1.2) Here, we use peptides pre-treated with 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) to obtain homogeneous, aggregate-free preparations. This step is necessary because pre-formed aggregates induce rapid aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins, which result in poor reproducibility among experiments<sup>5</sup>. Other methods such as filtration and SEC also can be used to obtain aggregate-free preparations for PICUP<sup>6</sup>.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>1.3) To treat the peptides with HFIP, pre-chill the HFIP container on ice inside a fume hood wearing adequate protection (HFIP is volatile and toxic). Cooling of a 250 ml bottle typically requires 10&#8211;15 min. Add HFIP to pre-chilled tubes containing peptide lyophilizates to obtain a nominal peptide concentration of 0.5 mM.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>1.4) Sonicate the peptide solutions in a water-bath sonicator for 5 min at room temperature.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>1.5) Vortex gently and incubate the tubes for 30 min at room temperature.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>1.6) Chill the tubes on ice (for 1 min), and divide the solutions into 10&#8211;50-&#956;l aliquots in labeled 0.6-ml low-adsorbent tubes.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>1.7) Remove HFIP by evaporation under a gentle stream of nitrogen, or leave the tubes open in the fume hood overnight. For overnight evaporation, place the open tubes in a rack and cover them with a large sheet of Kimwipes to prevent dust and particulate contamination.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>1.8) Exsiccate the remaining HFIP <i>in vacuo </i></span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>in a lyophilizer, or a centrifugal concentrator for 30 min, or in an exsiccator attached to a vacuum inlet for 2 h. The final product will be a peptide film at the bottom of the microfuge tubes. If properly exsiccated, the tubes can be stored airtight for extended periods (months) at

&#8722;20 or &#8722;80 °C.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><b>Part 2: Solubilizing the HFIP-treated peptides and photo cross-linking</b></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.1) Before solubilizing the HFIP-treated peptides for cross-linking reactions, one needs to prepare the cross-linking and quenching reagents.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.2) Weigh out ammonium persulfate (APS, M<i><sub>r</sub></i></span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'> 228.2 g/mol) and prepare a 20 mM solution in <span class=normallatin10ptchar>10 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.4</span></span><span style='font-size:9.0pt'>. </span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Mix using a vortex until the solution is clear.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.3) Prepare 1 mM solution of Tris(2,2-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (RuBpy, M<i><sub>r</sub></i></span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'> 748.63 g/mol) in 10 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.4. Mix using a vortex and verify complete dissolution. Protect the tube from light using aluminum foil.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.4) For SDS-PAGE analysis following cross-linking, a convenient quenching reagent is 5% &#946;-mercaptoethanol in 2&times; SDS-PAGE sample buffer. Alternatively, 1 M dithiothreitol (DTT, M<i><sub>r</sub></i></span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'> 154.5 g/mol) in deionized water or a suitable buffer can be used.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.5) HFIP-treated peptide films are dissolved in dilute NaOH first and then sodium phosphate buffer is added to get ~30 &#956;M peptide concentration. Add 60 mM NaOH followed by deionized water into the tube containing the peptide film such that NaOH and water constitute 10 and 45% of the final volume, respectively. Scrape the peptide film off the inside walls of microfuge tube using the tip, mix by pipetting up and down, and sonicate for 5 min in a water-bath sonicator.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.6) Add 45% 20 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.4, mix by pipetting, and centrifuge at 16,000 <i>g</i></span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'> for 10 min. Set aside aliquots of uncross-linked peptides mixed with the quenching reagent for negative controls.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.7) Adjust the camera shutter-delay to 1 s. At higher irradiation times, extensive radical reactions may cause protein degradation. Load the camera shutter. Irradiation time may need to be optimized when using the method with a new protein.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.8) A typical PICUP reaction is performed in a 20 &#956;l reaction volume. Transfer 18 &#956;l of the peptide solution into a thin-walled, clear, 0.2-ml PCR tube.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.9) To the peptide solution, add 1 &#956;l RuBpy followed by 1 &#956;l APS and mix the reagents by pipetting (the final concentration of RuBpy and APS in the reaction mixture will be 0.05 and 1 mM, respectively).</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.10) Quickly place the reaction tube inside a 1.8-mL glass vial. Place the vial inside the bellows attached in front of the camera body. Attach the lens protector and press the shutter so that the sample is irradiated for 1 s inside the bellows.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.11) After sample irradiation, quickly take the vial out of the bellows and the PCR tube out of the vial. Quickly quench the reaction by adding 1 &#956;l DTT or 10 &#956;l reducing PAGE sample buffer. Repeat the reaction for each peptide aliquot.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>2.12) The reaction mixtures can now be frozen at &#8722;20 °C for storage for no longer than 7 d or kept on ice before analysis by SDS-PAGE and silver-staining.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><b>Part 3: SDS-PAGE and sliver-staining of cross-linked peptide products</b></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>3.1) Routine SDS-PAGE and silver-staining are performed to visualize cross-linked peptides.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>3.2.) Load 5 &#956;l of the reaction mixture per lane to obtain ~130 pmol of peptide per lane.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>3.3) Include similar amounts of uncross-linked peptides for comparison. Also include a standard protein ladder for visual approximation of molecular weight of peptide bands.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp;</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm; margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>3.4) Run the gel using a standard gel electrophoresis apparatus. We use the XCell <i>SureLock </i></span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Mini-Cell system from Invitrogen and perform silver-staining according to Invitrogen publication <i>IM-1002</i></span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>, Novex Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide.</span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&nbsp;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt'><b>Part 4: Representative Results (Figure 1)</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt;line-height:normal'>SDS-PAGE and silver-staining analyses of PICUP-generated A&#946;40 oligomers show approximately similar band intensities of monomer through tetramer, followed by a sharp decrease in the abundance of higher oligomers<sup>7</sup>. Uncross-linked A&#946;40 migrates with an M<i><sub>r</sub></i><span style='font-style:normal'> consistent with that of monomer<sup>7</sup>. </span><span lang=EN-AU style='mso-ansi-language:EN-AU'>A&#946;42 shows a distinct oligomer size distribution. A&#946;42 oligomers comprise 2&#8211;3 groups<sup>8</sup>. The first group, monomer through trimer, displays decreasing intensity with increasing oligomer order. In the second group, a Gaussian-like distribution is observed between tetramer and heptamer, with a maximum at pentamer and hexamer. The third group, which is not shown here, contains oligomers of M<i><sub>r</sub></i></span><span lang=EN-AU style='mso-ansi-language:EN-AU'> ~30,000&#8211;60,000 Da<sup>8</sup>. These higher M<i><sub>r</sub></i></span><span lang=EN-AU style='mso-ansi-language: EN-AU'> oligomers typically are observed using SEC-isolated LMW A&#946;42 but not peptide prepared by filtration or HFIP treatment</span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><sup>6</sup></span><span lang=EN-AU style='mso-ansi-language: EN-AU'>. Uncross-linked A&#946;42 produces predominantly two bands, a monomer band and a broad trimer/tetramer band, which is an artefact induced by SDS<sup>5,9</sup>. Calcitonin yields an oligomer size distribution that strongly diverges from a monotonous exponential decrease in the region monomer through tetramer, suggesting pre-existence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers<sup>7</sup>.</span>

The control polypeptide, GRF, produces a monotonic oligomer distribution ranging from dimer through hexamer such that the apparent relative amounts of oligomers decrease exponentially with increasing molecular mass. In other experiments, higher oligomers also could be visualized<sup>7</sup>. The exact number and relative intensities of oligomer bands may vary somewhat among experiments depending on the actual protein concentration, the amount of protein loaded on the gel, and the time used for the development step in the silver-staining protocol.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>&nbsp;</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>Discussion:</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>PICUP was developed originally to study stable protein complexes<sup>2</sup>. The method was applied later to quantitative study of metastable amyloid protein assemblies, including A&#946;<sup>10</sup>, prion and disease-associated PrP<sup>Sc</sup> <sup>11</sup>, and &#945;-synuclein<sup>12</sup>. The most important factors that must be considered when designing a PICUP experiment are the reagent stoichiometry, irradiation time, and sample preparation procedure. The former two issues may require empirical optimization, whereas the latter issue largely affects interpretation of the experimental data. For amyloidogenic proteins in particular, determination of size distributions of metastable oligomers requires using aggregate-free starting preparations. The background, mechanism, instrumentation, protocol, optimization, scope, modifications, applications, and limitations of PICUP were covered in previous publications<sup>1,2,13</sup>. PICUP can be used to generate stable, soluble protein oligomers that following fractionation and purification, could be used for structural studies, cytotoxicity assays, oligomerization-inhibition studies, and as targets for development of molecular-recognition tools.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>&nbsp;</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>Acknowledgments:</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>This work was supported by grants AG027818 and AG030709 from NIH/NIA, 2005/2E from the Larry L. Hillblom Foundation, IIRG-07-58334 from the Alzheimer Association, and 07-65798 from California Department of Public Health.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>&nbsp;</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>Disclosures:</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Authors have nothing to disclose.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal>&nbsp;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>Table of specific reagents and equipment:</b></p>

<table border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='border-collapse:collapse;

mso-padding-alt:0cm 0cm 0cm 0cm'>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b>Name of the reagent/equipment</b></p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-left:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b>Company</b></p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-left:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b>Catalogue number</b></p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-left:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b>Comments (optional)</b></p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>Dolan-Jenner 200-W incandescent lamp</p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Dolan-Jenner Industries</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Model 170-D</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>The heat generated by the lamp does not affect samples for short
 incubation periods.</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>35-mm SLR camera body</p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Pentax</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>SP500 model</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>In our settings, a bellows is attached to the body of the camera to
 provide a convenient chamber for irradiation of the sample placed 10 cm away
 from the light source.</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>Clear, thin walled PCR tubes</p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Eppendorf</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>951010006 supplied by Fisher L22-003-24</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>Glass vials (1.8 mL)</p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Kimble Chromatography</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>60940A 2, supplied by Fisher 03-340-60</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>GRF</p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Bachem</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>H-3695</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>HFIP</p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>TCI America</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>H0424</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>Use in a fume hood.</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>A&#946;40 and A&#946;42</p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>UCLA Biopolymers Laboratory</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>Calcitonin</p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>American Peptide</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>22-1-10</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Tris(2,2-bipridyl)dichlororuthenium(II)
 hexahydrate</span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Sigma</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>224758-1G</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>Vortex until the solution is clear. Cover the RuBpy tube with foil to
 protect the reagent from ambient light. RuBpy is prepared freshly each time and
 should be used within 48 h.</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Ammonium persulfate</span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Sigma</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>A-7460</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>Vortex until the solution is clear. APS is prepared freshly each time
 and should be used within 48 h. </p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&#946;-mercaptoethanol</span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Sigma</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>M7154-25 ML</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>Can be used when SDS-PAGE analysis is performed.</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Novex Tricine SDS Sample Buffer
 (2&times;)</span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Invitrogen</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>LC1676</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>XCell <i>SureLock</i></span><span
 style='font-size:10.0pt'> Mini-Cell</span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Invitrogen</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>EI0001</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Novex Tricine Gels (10&#8211;20%)</span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Invitrogen</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>EC6625B0X</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Novex Tricine SDS Running Buffer
 (10&times;)</span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Invitrogen</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>LC1675</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
</tr>
<tr>
 <td width=148 valign=top style='width:147.8pt;border:solid black .5pt;
 border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Silver Express Staining Kit</span></p>
 </td>
 <td width=113 valign=top style='width:4.0cm;border-top:none;border-left:none;
 border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>Invitrogen</p>
 </td>
 <td width=108 valign=top style='width:108.45pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
 text-align:center;line-height:normal'>LC6100</p>
 </td>
 <td width=109 valign=top style='width:109.15pt;border-top:none;border-left:
 none;border-bottom:solid black .5pt;border-right:solid black .5pt;padding:
 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'>
 <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
 normal'>&nbsp;</p>
 </td>
</tr>

</table>

<p class=MsoNormal>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>References:</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bitan, G. Structural study of metastable amyloidogenic protein oligomers by photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins. Methods Enzymol. 413, 217-236, (2006).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Fancy, D. A. &amp; Kodadek, T. Chemistry for the analysis of protein-protein interactions: rapid and efficient cross-linking triggered by long wavelength light. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 6020-6024, (1999).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

Kluger, R. &amp; Alagic, A. Chemical cross-linking and protein-protein interactions&#8212;a review with illustrative protocols. Bioorg. Chem. 32, 451-472, (2004).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Tomohiro, T., Hashimoto, M. &amp; Hatanaka, Y. Cross-linking chemistry and biology: development of multifunctional photoaffinity probes. Chem. Rec. 5, 385-395, (2005).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bitan, G., Fradinger, E. A., Spring, S. M. &amp; Teplow, D. B. Neurotoxic protein oligomers&#8212;what you see is not always what you get. Amyloid 12, 88-95, (2005).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bitan, G. &amp; Teplow, D. B. Preparation of aggregate-free, low molecular weight amyloid-&#946; for assembly and toxicity assays. Methods Mol. Biol. 299, 3-9, (2005).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bitan, G., Lomakin, A. &amp; Teplow, D. B. Amyloid &#946;-protein oligomerization: prenucleation interactions revealed by photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 35176-35184, (2001).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bitan, G., Kirkitadze, M. D., Lomakin, A., Vollers, S. S., Benedek, G. B. &amp; Teplow, D. B. Amyloid &#946;-protein (A&#946;) assembly: A&#946;40 and A&#946;42 oligomerize through distinct pathways. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 330-335, (2003).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Hepler, R. W., Grimm, K. M., Nahas, D. D., Breese, R., Dodson, E. C., Acton, P., Keller, P. M., Yeager, M., Wang, H., Shughrue, P., Kinney, G. &amp; Joyce, J. G. Solution state characterization of amyloid &#946;-derived diffusible ligands. Biochemistry (Mosc). 45, 15157-15167, (2006).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>10&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bitan, G. &amp; Teplow, D. B. Rapid photochemical cross-linking&#8212;a new tool for studies of metastable, amyloidogenic protein assemblies. Acc. Chem. Res. 37, 357-364, (2004).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>11&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Piening, N., Weber, P., Hogen, T., Beekes, M., Kretzschmar, H. &amp; Giese, A. Photo-induced crosslinking of prion protein oligomers and prions. Amyloid 13, 67-77, (2006).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;

Li, H. T., Lin, X. J., Xie, Y. Y. &amp; Hu, H. Y. The early events of &#945;-synuclein oligomerization revealed by photo-induced cross-linking. Protein Pept. Lett. 13, 385-390, (2006).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'>13&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Vollers, S. S., Teplow, D. B. &amp; Bitan, G. Determination of Peptide oligomerization state using rapid photochemical crosslinking. Methods Mol. Biol. 299, 11-18, (2005).</p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'>&nbsp;</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>Figure legend:</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Figure 1: Silver-stained polyacrylamide gels showing uncross-linked (&#8722;) and photo-cross-linked (+) GRF, calcitonin, A&#946;40, and A&#946;42. </p>

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