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A biomaterial or biocompatible material is a biological or synthetic material that is not rejected by the body when introduced into the body.


Biomaterials are used to make:

  • blood vessels (arteries, ...)
  • joint replacements
  • ligaments and tendons
  • vascular grafts
  • heart valves
  • ...

Materials often used

For joints: Titanium is most often used

For bone reconstruction Alginate is often used

For blood vessels: Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (Dacron®) and polyurethane are most often used to create artificial blood vessels. They do have a relative stiffness however, and clood clotting is sometimes an issue.(1)

Polyglycolic acid (PGA), PLLA/polylactide-coglycolide (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), type I collagen, and fibrin are being examined as possible alternatives.

Blood vessels can also be made by growing it in a lab from endothelium cells (tissue culture). The blood vessels are then self-constructed and are composed of elastin (2).


1: Dacron blood vessels can cause blood clotting, especially when the blood vessels are small in diameter
2: Mark Post from UMC Maastricht succeeded in making blood vessels from endothelium cells

See also