BME100 f2015:Group14 1030amL1

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BME 100 Fall 2015 Home
Lab Write-Up 1 | Lab Write-Up 2 | Lab Write-Up 3
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Name: Raymond E. Rivera
Name: Ethan B. Marschall
Name: Laura A. Roa
Name: Ian M. Wale
Name: Lauren T. Howard
Name: Raul J Ramirez


Independent and Dependent Variables

For the purpose of this lab investigation, the independent variable is described as the amount in milligrams of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inflammation inducing agent. This was chosen to be the independent variable because this agent is what induces the increase of inflammotin and is thus a variable we can manipulate in studying the inflammatory protein. The dependent variable for this study is described as the amount of inflammotin-a newly discovered inflammatory protein (no units were given for this measurement). This is the dependent variable because the amount of inflammotin varies according to the amount of LPS, thus being the variable that can be measured.

Experimental Design

An important factor to consider within the experimental design is how the administration of the medication will be controlled. All groups within the study will be subjected to daily doses of the medication (in the form of pills at each dosage), at breakfast in order to create a controlled daily routine for the ingestion of the medicine as well as reduce possible irritation to the stomach, including inflammation or ulcers. The cycle of the treatment will begin on a Sunday and end on a Saturday for the purpose of measuring the inflammotin levels each cycle. Four hours after breakfast (during which the medication will be taken) on each Saturday during which the study will take place, subjects will be tested for their inflammotin levels using ELISA. Measuring inflammotin levels four hours after ingestion will hopefully allow for the full effect of the drug to take place.


In terms of groups for the purposes of the study, four different groups of subjects will be utilized. The first one willbe a control, utilizing a placebo pill-this will allow for comparison between the groups. The other three groups will each have different doses of lipopolysaccharide (3mg, 6mg, 9mg). Kristen should not use a 10mg group because the inflammatory effect of a 10mg group is already known and would waste resources (which the lab is apparently low on).


For the purposes of this study, the subjects will be "elderly" as described by the interval of 65 to 85. 65 is considered to be old enough to be conducive to the study, and 85 was chosen because people beyond the age of 85 begin to have many health issues that the study cannot control for.

Number of subjects per group

There will be 100 people total in the study. There will be 25 people per group; having large groups can help control and reduce the likelihood of any variation occurring within each individual group (i.e. a study subject forgetting to take a daily dose, or taking it at an incorrect time of day).

Subject Selection

For the purpose of the study, beginning the age requirement at 65 is beneficial, as 65 is the average age where people are considered to be elderly. For safety reasons, the end of the age interval for the study is 85 years because after this there are too many confounding variables (in the various health issues contracted after 85) to account for. The subjects will be required to list any medications they are currently prescribed in pre-study screening to ameliorate the possibility of any adverse effects in the form of drug interactions. Elderly people with inflammatory conditions cannot be included in this study. In order to ensure randomization of the test subjects when assigned to the group, each subject will be assigned a number and a random number generator will be used to sort subjects into groups to ensure that each group is fair.

Subjects will be chosen from senior living homes within 25 miles of the experiment area. Collecting subjects from senior living homes reduces variances in lifestyle such as: differences in diet, personal care, and exercise regimens.

Sources of Error and Bias

One source of error within the study is the possibility of drug interactions. Since the subjects are comprised of senior citizens, there is a high chance that they are prescribed and taking other medications outside of the drug that the experiment is studying. To control against this possible error, a pre-screening of subjects before the study will be conducted-where subjects will be required to state medications they are currently using. Subjects taking medications that will have possible interaction with the lipopolysaccharide will not be allowed entrance into the study. However, gathering a group of subjects that wholly do not take medicine at all creates a source of bias in that these subjects would be overall healthier than the average population of elderly citizens. Thus, subjects taking medications which do not interact with the LPS will still be granted entrance into the study.

Another source of error or variance within the study can occur if an experimental subject does not take the medication as prescribed; however, the large sample size that the study uses should lessen any variances that arise from this source of error..

Another source of error is that not every senior citizen lives in an assisted living home or a senior living facility, however since the minimum age is 65, our sample size accurate reflects at least 40% of the population.

File:Seniors in homes, by age