# BME100 f2015:Group13 8amL2

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# LAB 2 WRITE-UP

## Descriptive Statistics

Experiment 1 - Human Study

INFLAMMOTIN LEVELS (pg/mL)
Subject 0 mg 5 mg 10 mg 15 mg
1 5.23 10.72 100.19 793.17
2 1.01 9.29 75.92 476.67
3 4.23 8.46 23.46 771.45
4 1.87 10.19 70.87 795.09
5 3.67 7.29 19.27 181.27
6 2.98 7.54 99.65 752.78
7 5.83 8.67 38.37 934.23
8 5.24 6.15 76.26 554.87
9 4.27 10.92 35.25 692.23
10 4.01 10.09 76.98 627.65
Mean 3.834 8.932 61.622 657.941
Standard Deviation 1.52301 1.593932 30.11069 212.943
Count 10 10 10 10
Standard Error 0.481618 0.504045 9.521837 67.33848

Experiment 2 - Rat Study

INFLAMMOTIN LEVELS (pg/mL)
Subject 0 mg 10 mg
1 9.24 22.34
2 8.76 6.45
3 8.78 14.23
4 13.50 3.55
5 12.30 8.99
Mean 10.516 11.112
Standard Deviation 2.225552 7.402886
Count 5 5
Standard Error 0.995297 3.310671

## Results

Experiment 1 - Human Study

Experiment 2 - Rat Study

## Analysis

Experiment 1 - Human Study
An ANOVA test was conducted on the data gathered through trials using human subjects due to the existence of more than two (2) groups. The following image clearly shows the results of the ANOVA test.

Since a p-value of less than 0.05 was obtained, there is statistical significance between the groups, and t-tests should be carried out between two groups to determine significance. Due to errors associated with multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni Correction was used to obtain the p-value of 8.333E-03, found by dividing the confidence level we desire, 0.05, by the number of pairings, 6 to indicate statistical significance at 95% confidence. The results of the two-tailed unpaired t-tests between all group pairings is shown in the following table:

Post-Hoc t-tests
Dosages Being Compared p-value Correlated p-value to Indicate Significance Statistically Significant?
0 mg - 5 mg 8.59631E-07 8.333E-03 Yes
0 mg - 10 mg 9.94377E-06 8.333E-03 Yes
0 mg - 15 mg 1.39436E-08 8.333E-03 Yes
5 mg - 10 mg 3.01859E-05 8.333E-03 Yes
5 mg - 15 mg 1.57101E-08 8.333E-03 Yes
10 mg - 15 mg 6.4824E-08 8.333E-03 Yes

Looking at the table, all p-value results were less than 8.333E-03, which indicates more than 95% confidence that the results were statistically significant.

Experiment 2 - Rat Study
The rat study data set contains two groups, therefore a t-test is appropriate. The results are contained in the following table:

/T-test For Rat Study
Dosages Being Compared p-value Correlated p-value to Indicate Significance Statistically Significant?
0 mg - 10 mg 0.867403497 0.05 No

With a p-value of grater than 0.05, the results of the t-test for the two groups in the rat study are not statistically significant.

## Summary/Discussion

In general, the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the human trials was intensified as the dosage was increased between groups. For dosages between 0 and 10 milligrams, the effect was rather insignificant, with inflammotin levels ranging between 4 pg/mL to 60 pg/mL. However, the increase in dosage to 15 mg resulted in a significant increase in the level of inflammotin in the body, with the average hovering around 660 pg/mL. And based on the ANOVA and t-tests, the p-values indicate that the results are statistically significant with a 95% confidence level.

On the contrary, the effect of LPS on rats was insignificant, as indicated by a p-value grater than 0.05. The LPS dosage of 0 mg resulted in an inflammotin level of about 10 pg/mL, while the level with a 10 mg dosage increased to just 11 pg/mL. This shows that in rats, LPS has no effect.