The overall focus of the CMBL group is to understand how cells sense and respond to changes in their mechanical environment. Although a wide range of tissues are known to be regulated by physical signals, outside of sensory mechanisms, the cellular aparatus responsible for the initial "mechanotransduction" event is poorly understood. Our group is primarily focused on mechanosensitivity of bone cells as it relates to osteoporosis, stress fractures, and disuse bone loss associated with spinal cord injury and space flight. We have identified the cellular level flow of fluid due to loading as a potent physical signal in cellular metabolism. Our research has been funded by a variety of sources including the NIH, NASA, NSF, US Army, Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Whitaker Foundation.