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bion_id property organism value range units


1 Cell length Bacteria Escherichia coli 2 microns 2 Cell diameter Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.8 microns 3 Cell total volume Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 um3 4 Cell total volume Bacteria Escherichia coli 1.12E-18 0.44-1.79*10^-18 m3 5 Cell aqueous volume Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.7 um3 6 Cell surface area Bacteria Escherichia coli 6 um2 7 Cell wet weight Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 pg 8 Cell dry weight Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.3 pg 9 Cell dry weight Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.64 pg 10 Periplasm volume Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.065 fL 11 Cytoplasm volume Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.67 fL 12 Envelope volume Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.16 fL 13 Nuclear (DNA+protein) volume Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.16 fL 14 Inner Membrane thickness Bacteria Escherichia coli 8 nm 15 Outer Membrane thickness Bacteria Escherichia coli 11.5 8 to 15 nm 16 Periplasm thickness Bacteria Escherichia coli 10 nm 17 Average size of protein Bacteria Escherichia coli 360 aa 18 Average diameter of ave. protein Bacteria Escherichia coli 5 nm 19 Average MW of protein Bacteria Escherichia coli 40 kDalton 20 Average prot. oligomerization state Bacteria Escherichia coli 4 proteins/complex 21 Average MW of protein entity Bacteria Escherichia coli 160 kDalton 22 Average size of mRNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 1100 bp 23 Average length of mRNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 370 nm 24 Average MW of all RNAs Bacteria Escherichia coli 400 kDalton 25 Average MW of single DNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 3000000 kDalton 26 Average MW of all DNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 7000000 kDalton 27 Average length of DNA (chrom.) Bacteria Escherichia coli 1.55 mm 28 Diameter of chromosome Bacteria Escherichia coli 490 micron 29 Diameter of condensed chromosome Bacteria Escherichia coli 17 micron 30 Spacing between small organics Bacteria Escherichia coli 3.6 nm/molecule 31 Spacing between ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 2.1 nm/molecule 32 Ave. spacing between proteins Bacteria Escherichia coli 7 nm/molecule 33 Spacing between protein entities Bacteria Escherichia coli 9 nm/molecule 34 Mean Velocity of 70 kD protein (cytoplasm) Bacteria Escherichia coli 3 nm/ms 35 Mean Velocity of 40 kD protein (cytoplasm) Bacteria Escherichia coli 5 nm/ms 36 Mean Velocity of 30 kD protein (cytoplasm) Bacteria Escherichia coli 7 nm/ms 37 Mean Velocity of 14 kD protein (cytoplasm) Bacteria Escherichia coli 10 nm/ms 38 Mean Velocity of small molecules (cytoplasm) Bacteria Escherichia coli 50 nm/ms 39 Mean Velocity of protein in H2O Bacteria Escherichia coli 27 nm/ms 40 Mean Velocity of small molecules in H2O Bacteria Escherichia coli 87 nm/ms 41 Concentration of protein in cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 260 200-320 mg/ml 42 Concentration of RNA in cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 97.5 75-120 mg/ml 43 Concentration of DNA in cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 14.5 18-Nov mg/ml 44 Volume occupied by water Bacteria Escherichia coli 70 Percent 45 Volume occupied by protein Bacteria Escherichia coli 17 Percent 46 Volume occupied by all RNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 6 Percent 47 Volume occupied by rRNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 5 Percent 48 Volume occupied by tRNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.8 Percent 49 Volume occupied by mRNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.2 Percent 50 Volume occupied by DNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 Percent 51 Volume occupied by ribosomes Bacteria Escherichia coli 8 Percent 52 Volume occupied by lipid Bacteria Escherichia coli 3 Percent 53 Volume occupied by LPS Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 Percent 54 Volume occupied by murein Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 Percent 55 Volume occupied by glycogen Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 Percent 56 Volume occupied by ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.3 Percent 57 Volume occupied by small organics Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 Percent 58 Translation rate Bacteria Escherichia coli 40 aa/sec 59 Translation rate Bacteria Escherichia coli 20 aa/sec 60 RNA polymerase transcription rate Bacteria Escherichia coli 70 nt/sec 61 Number of cell walls/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 Unitless 62 Number of membranes/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 2 Unitless 63 Number of chromosomes/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 2.3 Unitless 64 Number of mRNA/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 4000 Unitless 65 Number of rRNA/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 18000 Unitless 66 Number of tRNA/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 200000 Unitless 67 Number of all RNA/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 222000 Unitless 68 Number of polysaccharides/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 39000 Unitless 69 Number of murein molecules/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 470000 240,000-700,000 Unitless 70 Number of lipopolysaccharide/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 600000 Unitless 71 Number of lipids/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 25000000 Unitless 72 Number of all lipids/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 25000000 Unitless 73 Number of phosphatidylethanolamine Bacteria Escherichia coli 18500000 Unitless 74 Number of phosphatidylglycerol Bacteria Escherichia coli 5000000 Unitless 75 Number of cardiolipin Bacteria Escherichia coli 1200000 Unitless 76 Number of phosphatidylserine Bacteria Escherichia coli 500000 Unitless 77 Number of LPS (MW = 10kD) Bacteria Escherichia coli 600000 Unitless 78 Average SA of lipid molecule Bacteria Escherichia coli 25 Ang2 79 Fraction of lipid bilayer=lipid Bacteria Escherichia coli 40 Percent 80 Fraction of lipid bilayer=protein Bacteria Escherichia coli 60 Percent 81 Number of outer membrane proteins Bacteria Escherichia coli 300000 Unitless 82 Number of porins (subset of OM) Bacteria Escherichia coli 60000 Unitless 83 Number of lipoproteins (OM) Bacteria Escherichia coli 240000 Unitless 84 Number of inner membrane proteins Bacteria Escherichia coli 200000 Unitless 85 Number of nuclear proteins Bacteria Escherichia coli 100000 Unitless 86 Number of cytoplasmic proteins Bacteria Escherichia coli 1000000 Unitless 87 Number of ribosomal proteins Bacteria Escherichia coli 900000 Unitless 88 Number of periplasmic proteins Bacteria Escherichia coli 80000 Unitless 89 Number of all proteins in cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 2600000 Unitless 90 Number of all proteins in cell in amino acids Bacteria Escherichia coli 1890000000 amino acids 91 Time to replicate the chromosome Bacteria Escherichia coli 53.5 40-67 Minutes 92 Average distance between ribosomes on mRNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 60 41-79 nucleotides 93 Number of external proteins (flag/pili) Bacteria Escherichia coli 1000000 Unitless 94 Number of all proteins Bacteria Escherichia coli 3600000 Unitless 95 Number of protein types to make flagella Bacteria Escherichia coli 42 Unitless 96 Length of flagella Bacteria Escherichia coli 15 20-Oct microns 97 Diameter of flagella Bacteria Escherichia coli 25 nm 98 Number of protofilaments in flagellum Bacteria Escherichia coli 11 Unitless 99 Diameter of each fliC monomer Bacteria Escherichia coli 5 nm 100 Number of fliC monomers in filament Bacteria Escherichia coli 33000 Unitless 101 Number of flagella/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 10 Unitless 102 Number of fliC proteins Bacteria Escherichia coli 330000 Unitless 103 Speed at which E. coli move Bacteria Escherichia coli 50 micron/sec 104 Number of protein types to make pilus Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 Unitless 105 Length of pili/fimbrae Bacteria Escherichia coli 1100 200-2000 nm 106 Diameter of pili Bacteria Escherichia coli 6.5 nm 107 Number of papA/nm pilus Bacteria Escherichia coli 1.5 Unitless 108 Number of papA monomers/pilus Bacteria Escherichia coli 16500 3000-30,000 Unitless 109 Number of pili/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 200 100-300 Unitless 110 Number of papA/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 600000 300,000-900,000 Unitless 111 Number of ribosomes/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 18000 Unitless 112 Number of protein types to make ribosome Bacteria Escherichia coli 55 Unitless 113 Number rRNA types to make ribosome Bacteria Escherichia coli 3 Unitless 114 Number of proteins in 30S subunit Bacteria Escherichia coli 21 Unitless 115 Number of proteins in 50S subunit Bacteria Escherichia coli 34 Unitless 116 Number of rRNA in 30S subunit Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 Unitless 117 Number of rRNA in 50S subunit Bacteria Escherichia coli 2 Unitless 118 Length of all rRNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 5520 nt 119 MW of ribosome Bacteria Escherichia coli 2700 kDalton 120 MW of RNA component Bacteria Escherichia coli 1700 kDalton 121 MW of protein component Bacteria Escherichia coli 1000 kDalton 122 Diameter of ribosome Bacteria Escherichia coli 20 nm 123 Volume of ribosome Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.0000042 um3 124 Number of water molecules/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 23400000000 Unitless 125 Number of ions/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 120000000 Unitless 126 Number of small organics/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 18000000 Unitless 127 Number of K ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 90000000 Unitless 128 Number of Na ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 2000000 Unitless 129 Na (in): Na (out) Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.05 Unitless 130 Number of Ca ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 2300000 Unitless 131 Number of free Ca ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 40 Unitless 132 Number of Cl ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 2400000 Unitless 133 Number of Mg ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 4000000 Unitless 134 Number of Fe ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 7000000 Unitless 135 Number of Mn ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 1700000 Unitless 136 Number of Zn ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 1700000 Unitless 137 Number of Mo ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 1700000 Unitless 138 Number of Cu ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 1700000 Unitless 139 Number of PO4 ions Bacteria Escherichia coli 2000000 Unitless 140 Number of glucose/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 300000 200,000-400,000 Unitless 141 Number of PEP/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 1100000 Unitless 142 Number of pyruvate/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 370000 Unitless 143 Number of gluc-6-PO4/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 20000 Unitless 144 Number of ATP/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 1750000 500,000 - 3,000,000 Unitless 145 Number of ADP/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 70000 Unitless 146 Number of NADP/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 240000 Unitless 147 Number of NADPH/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 220000 Unitless 148 Number of all amino acids/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 6000000 Unitless 149 Number of free Alanine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 350000 Unitless 150 Number of free Cysteine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 80000 Unitless 151 Number of free Aspartate/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 530000 Unitless 152 Number of free Glutamate/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 200000 Unitless 153 Number of free Phenylalanine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 170000 Unitless 154 Number of free Glycine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 350000 Unitless 155 Number of free Histidine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 80000 Unitless 156 Number of free Isoleucine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 200000 Unitless 157 Number of free Lysine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 190000 Unitless 158 Number of free Leucine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 300000 Unitless 159 Number of free Methionine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 40000 Unitless 160 Number of free Asparagine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 200000 Unitless 161 Number of free Proline/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 200000 Unitless 162 Number of free Glutamine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 200000 Unitless 163 Number of free Arginine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 170000 Unitless 164 Number of free Serine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 300000 Unitless 165 Number of free Threonine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 1400000 Unitless 166 Number of free Valine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 240000 Unitless 167 Number of free Tryptophan/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 80000 Unitless 168 Number of free Tyrosine/cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 300000 Unitless 169 Osmotic pressure (pushing out) Bacteria Escherichia coli 75 lb/in2 170 One glucose generates (total) Bacteria Escherichia coli 37 36-38 ATP 171 Glycolysis yields Bacteria Escherichia coli 7 8-Jun ATP 172 Oxidation of pyruvate yields Bacteria Escherichia coli 6 ATP 173 Krebs cycle/e- transport yields Bacteria Escherichia coli 24 ATP 174 Number ATP to make 1 DNA Bacteria Escherichia coli 72289000 Unitless 175 Number ATP to make 1 protein (360 aa) Bacteria Escherichia coli 1500 Unitless 176 Number ATP to make 1 lipid Bacteria Escherichia coli 7 Unitless 177 Number ATP to make 1 polysaccharide Bacteria Escherichia coli 2000 Unitless 178 Number ATP to make 1 RNA (1000 nt) Bacteria Escherichia coli 2000 Unitless 179 Number ATP to make 1 cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 55000000000 ATP 180 Number Glucose molecules consumed Bacteria Escherichia coli 1400000 Unitless 181 Cell generation time Bacteria Escherichia coli 30 minutes 182 Number of chemoreceptors (total) Bacteria Escherichia coli 15000 proteins 183 Number of major receptors (Tsr+Tar) Bacteria Escherichia coli 14000 proteins 184 Number of minor receptors (Trg+Tap+Aer) Bacteria Escherichia coli 1000 proteins 185 Number of kinases (CheA) Bacteria Escherichia coli 4500 proteins 186 Number of receptor-kinase couplers (CheW) Bacteria Escherichia coli 6700 proteins 187 Number of phosphatases (CheZ) Bacteria Escherichia coli 3200 proteins 188 Number of feedback response regulators (CheB) Bacteria Escherichia coli 240 proteins 189 Number of methyltransferases Bacteria Escherichia coli 140 proteins 190 Time constant for sub-saturating response Bacteria Escherichia coli 4 seconds 191 Cell length Bacteria Escherichia coli 3 um 192 Cell diameter Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 um 193 Cell volume Bacteria Escherichia coli 2 um3 194 GFP diffusion rate in cytoplasm Bacteria Escherichia coli 7.7 plus/minus 2.5 µm^2/s 195 Available RNAP Bacteria Escherichia coli 30 nM 196 Available ribosomes Bacteria Escherichia coli 500 nM 197 Average number of proteins per transcript Bacteria Escherichia coli 10 unitless 198 Ribosome + RNAn --> Ribosome·RNAn+1 Bacteria Escherichia coli 100 bp/sec 199 Diffusion coefficient of dextran (40kDa) in Drosophila cytoplasm Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 17.6 plus/minus 1.8 um^2/s 200 Genome Size Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 120000000 Base pairs 201 Number of genes Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 13647 Genes 202 Chromosome number (2n) Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 8 unitless 203 median length of a yeast RNA molecule [nucleotides] Yeast 1474 unitless 204 median cost of precursor synthesis per nucleotide [~P] Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 49.3 unitless 205 median mRNA abundance Yeast 1.2 unitless 206 median mRNA decay constant Yeast 0.00056 s^-1 207 median length of a yeast protein Yeast 385 aa 208 median cost of precursor synthesis per amino acid [~P] Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 30.3 unitless 209 median protein abundance Yeast 2460 unitless 210 TRPV1 Q10 20.6 Unitless 211 TRPV1 Q10 25.6 Unitless 212 Diameter of Bacillus subtilis Bacteria Bacillus subtilis 0.87 um 213 Length of Bacillus subtilis in rich media Bacteria Bacillus subtilis 4.7 um 214 Length of Bacillus subtilis in minimal sorbitol medium Bacteria Bacillus subtilis 2.3 um 215 Water as percentage of the total wet weight bacteria 70 Percent 216 Intracellular concentration of Na+ in early cleavage stage Xenopus laevis embryos African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 21 mM 217 Protein percentage by weight in bacteria Bacteria 26 20-32 Percent 218 Intracellular concentration of K+ in early cleavage stage Xenopus laevis embryos African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 90 mM 219 number of bacteriochlorophylls per reaction center Bacteria 70 40-100 unitless 220 Intracellular concentration of Cl- in Xenopus laevis eggs African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 60 mM 221 Mutation rate per base pair per replication Bacteriophage Lambda 0.000000077 mutation/bp/replication 222 Intercellular concentration of Na+ in stage 9 blastula embryos of Xenopus laevis African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 91 mM 223 Mutation rate per genome per replication Bacteriophage Lambda 0.0038 mutation/genome/replication 224 Intercellular concentration of K+ in stage 9 blastula embryos of Xenopus laevis African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 4 mM 225 Mutation rate per base pair per replication Bacteriophage M13 0.00000072 mutation/bp/replication 226 Intercellular concentrationof Cl- in stage 9 blastula embryos of Xenopus laevis African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 59 mM 227 Mutation rate per genome per replication Bacteriophage M13 0.0046 mutation/genome/replication 228 Intercellular concentration of Ca2+ in stage 9 blastula embryos of Xenopus laevis African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1.5 mM 229 Mutation rate per base pair per replication Bacteriophages T2 and T4 0.000000024 mutation/bp/replication 230 Concentration of ATP in Xenopus laevis eggs African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 0.8 0.6-1 mM 231 Mutation rate per genome per replication Bacteriophages T2 and T4 0.004 mutation/genome/replication 232 Concentration of GTP, CTP, and UTP in Xenopus laevis eggs African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 0.4 0.2-0.6 mM 233 Virus diameter, head only Bacteriophage Lambda 0.000066 um3 234 Translation rate of beta-galactosidase in E. coli Bacteria Escherichia coli 14.5 13-16 aa/s 235 Genome Size African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 3000000000 Base pairs 236 Virus diameter, head only Bacteriophage Lambda 50 nm 237 Number of output response regulators (CheY) Bacteria Escherichia coli 8200 proteins 238 Number of genes Yeast 6609 ORF 239 Leaf area index Biosphere 4.3 micromol/m^2/sec 240 Dynamic range for gradient sensing of alpha-methylaspartate Bacteria Escherichia coli 5 orders of magnitude 241 Number of tRNA Yeast 299 unitless 242 Global primary productivity - [carbon] Biosphere 1E+14 kg/year 243 Diffusion rate of cytochrome c Horse Equus caballus 13 10^-7*cm^2/sec 244 Number of rRNA genes Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 150 unitless 245 Total CO2 in biosphere Biosphere 4.00E+16 kg 246 Diffusion rate of Hemoglobin, oxy Horse Equus caballus 6.02 10^-7*cm^2/sec 247 Diffusion rate of Concanavalin A Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6.34 10^-7*cm^2/sec 248 Diffusion rate of Pancreatic trypsin inhibitor Cow Bos Taurus 12.9 10^-7*cm^2/sec 249 Diffusion rate of Alcohol dehydrogenaseh Horse Equus caballus 6.23 10^-7*cm^2/sec 250 Molecular weight of Concanavalin A Yeast 51260 Dalton 251 Diffusion rate of Ribonuclease A Cow Bos Taurus 10.7 10^-7*cm^2/sec 252 Molecular weight of cytochrome c Horse Equus caballus 12310 Dalton 253 Percent of total transcription devoted to ribosomal RNA Yeast 60 Percent 254 Diffusion rate of Trypsin Cow Bos Taurus 9.3 10^-7*cm^2/sec 255 Molecular weight of Hemoglobin, oxy Horse Equus caballus 64610 Dalton 256 RNA to DNA ratio Yeast 50 Unitless 257 Diffusion rate of Elastase Cow Bos Taurus 9.5 10^-7*cm^2/sec 258 Molecular weight of Alcohol dehydrogenaseh Horse Equus caballus 79870 Dalton 259 Percent of total RNA that is ribosomal RNA Yeast 80 Percent 260 Diffusion rate of Carboxypeptidase A Cow Bos Taurus 9.2 10^-7*cm^2/sec 261 Minimal generation time Bacteria Escherichia coli 17 Minutes 262 Percent of total RNA that is tRNA Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 15 Percent 263 Diffusion rate of Phosphoglycerate kinase Cow Bos Taurus 6.38 10^-7*cm^2/sec 264 Mutation rate per base pair per replication Bacteria Escherichia coli 5.4E-10 mutation/bp/replication 265 Percent of total RNA that is ribosomal mRNA Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5 Percent 266 Molecular weight of Pancreatic trypsin inhibitor Cow Bos Taurus 6520 Dalton 267 Mutation rate per genome per replication Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.0025 mutation/genome/replication 268 Number of ribosomes Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 200000 Unitless 269 Molecular weight of Ribonuclease A Cow Bos Taurus 13690 Dalton 270 Genome Size Bacteria Escherichia coli 4600000 Base pairs 271 Generation time Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 100 minutes 272 Molecular weight of Trypsin Cow Bos Taurus 23200 Dalton 273 Number of genes Bacteria Escherichia coli 3000 Genes 274 Number of mRNAs in cell Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 15000 Unitless 275 Molecular weight of Elastase Cow Bos Taurus 25900 Dalton 276 GFP diffusion rate in eukaryotic cytoplasm Unspecified 27 µm^2/s 277 Gene duplication rate per gene per billion years Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.035 0.01 - 0.06 gene^-1*billion years^-1 278 Molecular weight of Carboxypeptidase A Cow Bos Taurus 34500 Dalton 279 Genome Size Pufferfish Fugu rubripes 365000000 Base pairs 280 Molecular weight of Phosphoglycerate kinase Cow Bos Taurus 45800 Dalton 281 Number of genes Pufferfish Fugu rubripes 38000 Genes 282 Genome Size Nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae 104000000 Base pairs 283 Genome Size Chicken Gallus gallus 120000000 Base pairs 284 Mitochondrial rRNA in egg African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 20 ng 285 Number of genes Nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae 19507 Genes 286 Diffusion rate of small molecule Generic 50 10^-7*cm^2/sec 287 Mitochondrial protein in egg African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 10 micrograms 288 Mutation rate per base pair per replication Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 2.3E-10 mutation/bp/replication 289 Diffusion rate of protein molecule Generic 5 10^-7*cm^2/sec 290 Generation time Cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC 6803 6 Hours 291 Mutation rate per genome per replication Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 0.018 mutation/genome/replication 292 Diffusion rate of virus particle Generic 0.5 10^-7*cm^2/sec 293 number of genes Mycoplasma Mesoplasma florum 683 unitless 294 Minimal generation time Spirochaete bacteria Treponema pallidum 1980 Minutes 295 Chromosome number (2n) Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 12 unitless 296 Diffusion rate of bacterial cell Generic 0.05 10^-7*cm^2/sec 297 Genome size Mycoplasma Mesoplasma florum 793224 bp 298 Minimal generation time Bacteria Vibrio natriegens 9.8 Minutes 299 generation time Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 4 days 300 Diffusion rate of animal cell Generic 0.005 10^-7*cm^2/sec 301 GFP diffusion rate in mitochondria Mitochondria 25 20-30 µm^2/s 302 GFP diffusion rate in water Not applicable 87 µm^2/s 303 Nuclear volume of a stage VI Xenopus laevis oocyte African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 40 nL 304 Life span Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 2.5 3-Feb weeks 305 Weight of DNA base pair Generic 665 Dalton 306 Genome Size Mouse Mus musculus 3000000000 Base pairs 307 Chromosomal DNA weight African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 12 pg 308 Protein accumulation rate of a stage VI Xenopus laevis oocyte African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 400 ng/day 309 Genome Size Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 100000000 Base pairs 310 Weight of single stranded DNA base Generic 325 Dalton 311 Number of genes Mouse Mus musculus 30000 Genes 312 Nucleolar rDNA weight African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 25 pg 313 Amount of ATP in a stage VI Xenopus laevis oocyte African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1700 pmol 314 Number of genes Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 20621 Genes 315 Weight of single stranded RNA base Generic 340 Dalton 316 Mutation rate per base pair per replication Mouse Mus musculus 1.8E-10 mutation/bp/replication 317 Nucleolar rDNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 2000000 rDNA repeats 318 Amount of CTP in a stage VI Xenopus laevis oocyte African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 500 pmol 319 Water as percentage of the total wet weight in heart fibroblasts Chicken Gallus gallus 77 Percent 320 Conversion from weight to bp Generic 978 Mbp/pgram 321 Mutation rate per genome per replication Mouse Mus musculus 0.49 mutation/genome/replication 322 Mitochondrial DNA weight African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 4000 pg 323 Amount of UTP in a stage VI Xenopus laevis oocyte African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1200 pmol 324 Chromosome number (2n) Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes 48 unitless 325 Flux of photons Generic 4.00E+21 Photons/m^2/sec 326 Q10 (24-36°C) of TRPV4 Mouse Mus musculus 19.1 Unitless 327 Mitochondrial DNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 100000000 genomes 328 Polysome density in Xenopus stage VI oocytes African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1 polymerase per 100-200 nucleotides 329 Generation time Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 5 Hours 330 Max Photosynthetic photon flux Generic 2000 micromol/m^2/sec 331 TRPV3 Q10 Mouse Mus musculus 6.62 Unitless 332 rRNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 5 ug 333 Elongation rate of RNA polymerase in Xenopus stage VI oocytes African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 15 nucleotides/s 334 Number of chromosomes/cell Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 17 Unitless 335 Mean Photosynthetic photon flux Generic 800 micromol/m^2/sec 336 Chromosome number (2n) Mouse Mus musculus 40 unitless 337 5S RNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 60 ng 338 RNA accumulation rate in stage VI Xenopus laevis oocyte African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 20 ng/day 339 Genome Size Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 120000000 Base pairs 340 Effective cross section of chlorophyll for useful photons Generic 0.09 Angstrom^2 341 Protein percentage by weight in muscle cells Unspecified 23 Percent 342 5S RNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1E+12 RNAs 343 Elongation rate of ribosomes in Xenopus laevis stage VI oocytes African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 3 nucleotides/s 344 Chlorophyll concentration Chloroplast 30 mol/m^3 345 Maximal absorption rate under sun illumination of chlorophyll pigment Generic 4 1/sec 346 Minimal generation time Mycobacterium tuberculosis 862 792-932 Minutes 347 tRNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 60 ng 348 Number of Vitellogenin mRNA transcripts per liver cell after estrogen stimulation of Xenopus laevis males or females African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 30000 transcripts/cell 349 Genome Size Zebrafish Danio rerio 1700000000 Base pairs 350 Catalysis rates of photosystem units Generic 5050 100-10000 1/sec 351 Mutation rate per base pair per replication Bread mold Neurospora crassa 7.2E-11 mutation/bp/replication 352 tRNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1.5E+12 tRNAs 353 Number of rRNA genes in E. coli Bacteria Escherichia coli 7 unitless 354 Diffusion rate of Lactate dehydrogenase Dogfish 4.99 10^-7*cm^2/sec 355 Catalysis rates of photosystem units Generic 200 1/sec 356 Mutation rate per genome per replication Bread mold Neurospora crassa 0.003 mutation/genome/replication 357 snRNA U1 African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 0.07 ng 358 Molecular weight of Lactate dehydrogenase Dogfish 146200 Dalton 359 Amino acid replacement rate [per site per year] Generic 0.000000001 year^-1 360 Genome Size Bread mold Neurospora crassa 39900000 Base pairs 361 snRNA U1 African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 800000000 RNAs 362 Chromosome number (2n) Cat Felis silvestris catus 38 unitless 363 Osmotic pressure of the ocean Generic 27 Atm 364 Number of genes Bread mold Neurospora crassa 10000 Genes 365 polyA+ RNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 80 ng 366 Mutation rate per base pair per replication Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 3.4E-10 mutation/bp/replication 367 Chromosome number (2n) Goldfish Carassius auratus 104 unitless 368 Chloroplast length Plant cell 4 um 369 Chloroplast diameter Plant cell 1 um 370 polyA+ RNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 50000000000 RNAs 371 Mutation rate per genome per replication Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 0.058 mutation/genome/replication 372 Chromosome number (2n) Gorilla Gorilla species 48 unitless 373 Chloroplast volume Plant cell 3 um3 374 ribosomal protein mRNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 10 ng 375 Q10 (5–20°C) of Shaker K+ channel peak amplitude Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 1.51 Unitless 376 Chromosome number (2n) Guinea Pig Cavia porcellus 16 unitless 377 Number of chlorophyll per reaction center Plants 400 100-700 unitless 378 ribosomal protein mRNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 20000000000 transcripts 379 Q10 (5–20°C) of Shaker K+ channel activation time constant Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 3.14 Unitless 380 Number of cell divisions in an average human lifespan Human Homo sapiens 1.00E+17 Cell divisions 381 Diffusion rate of Adenylate kinase Pig Sus species 10.2 10^-7*cm^2/sec 382 actin mRNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1 ng 383 Q10 (5–20°C) of Shaker K+ channel inactivation time constant Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 7.2 Unitless 384 number of DNA damage events caused by oxidative damage Human Homo sapiens 1000 bases damaged per cell per day 385 Diffusion rate of Bence Jones REI Pig Sus species 10 10^-7*cm^2/sec 386 actin mRNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 500000000 transcripts 387 Q10 (5–20°C) of Shaker K+ channel ratio b/w steady-state & peak current Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 2.95 Unitless 388 Water as percentage of the total wet weight Mammalian tissue culture cell 70 Percent 389 Diffusion rate of Subtilisin novo Pig Sus species 9.04 10^-7*cm^2/sec 390 Hsp70 mRNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 0.004 ng 391 Diffusion rate of Lysozyme Chicken Gallus gallus 11.3 10^-7*cm^2/sec 392 Diffusion rate of Malate dehydrogenase Pig Sus species 5.76 10^-7*cm^2/sec 393 Hsp70 mRNA African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1000000 transcripts 394 Molecular weight of Lysozyme Chicken Gallus gallus 14320 Dalton 395 Molecular weight of Adenylate kinase Pig Sus species 21640 Dalton 396 Ribosomes African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1E+12 ribosomes 397 Genome Size Human Homo sapiens 3000000000 Base pairs 398 Molecular weight of Bence Jones REI Pig Sus species 23500 Dalton 399 Yolk protein African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 250 ug 400 Number of genes Human Homo sapiens 23000 Genes 401 Molecular weight of Subtilisin novo Pig Sus species 27530 Dalton 402 non-yolk protein African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 25 ug 403 Diffusion rate of Chymotrypsinogen Human Homo sapiens 9.48 10^-7*cm^2/sec 404 Molecular weight of Malate dehydrogenase Pig Sus species 74900 Dalton 405 non-yolk protein African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 5E+14 proteins 406 Diffusion rate of Superoxide dismutase Human Homo sapiens 8.92 10^-7*cm^2/sec 407 TRPV1 Q10 (41–50°C) Rat Rattus norvegicus 27 Unitless 408 Histones African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 140 ng 409 Molecular weight of Chymotrypsinogen Human Homo sapiens 25670 Dalton 410 Q10 (47–51°C) of heat activated current in DRG neurons Rat Rattus norvegicus 17.8 Unitless 411 Histones African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 5E+12 histone proteins 412 Molecular weight of Superoxide dismutase Human Homo sapiens 33900 Dalton 413 Chromosome number (2n) Rat Rattus norvegicus 42 unitless 414 Nucleoplasmin African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 250 ng 415 Mutation rate per base pair per replication Human Homo sapiens 5E-11 mutation/bp/replication 416 number of DNA damage events caused by oxidative damage Rat Rattus norvegicus 10000 bases damaged per cell per day 417 Nucleoplasmin African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 5E+12 nucleoplasmin proteins 418 Mutation rate per genome per replication Human Homo sapiens 0.16 mutation/genome/replication 419 Water as percentage of the total wet weight Rat Rattus norvegicus 74 Percent 420 RNA polymerase I and II African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 100000 greater than a somatic cell 421 absolute abundance of p53 Human Homo sapiens 160000 16 ± 6 x 10^4 unitless 422 Protein percentage by weight in red blood cells Unspecified 35 Percent 423 RNA polymerase III African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 500000 greater than a somatic cell 424 DNA double strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation [DSB per Gray per cell] Human Homo sapiens 36 unitless 425 Minimal generation time Bacteria Rhizobium japonicum 402.5 344-461 Minutes 426 Each dNTP African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 12.5 15-Oct pmol 427 Chromosome number (2n) Human Homo sapiens 46 unitless 428 median haploid cell volume Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 42 micron^3 429 rGTP African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 250 pmol 430 Minimal generation time Bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus 76.5 66-87 Minutes 431 median haploid cell volume Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 37 micron^3 432 Methionine African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 40 pmol 433 Cell diameter Mammalian tissue culture cell 15 20-Oct um 434 Number of Zn ions in YPD Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 80000000 Unitless 435 Cell volume Mammalian tissue culture cell 2250 500 - 4000 um3 436 Number of Se ions in YPD Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 60000000 Unitless 437 Mitochondria length Mammalian tissue culture cell 1 um 438 Number of S ions in YPD Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 500000000 Unitless 439 Mitochondria volume Mammalian tissue culture cell 0.5 um3 440 Number of P ions in YPD Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5000000000 Unitless 441 Nuclear diameter Mammalian tissue culture cell 7.5 10-May um 442 Number of Ni ions in YPD Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 20000000 Unitless 443 Nuclear volume Mammalian tissue culture cell 283 66 - 500 um3 444 Number of Na ions in YPD Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 200000000 Unitless 445 number of depurination events Mammalian tissue culture cell 10000 bases depurinated per cell per day 446 Number of Mn ions in YPD Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 500000 unitless 447 number of depyrimidination events Mammalian tissue culture cell 500 bases depyrimidinated per cell per day 448 Nuclear volume (average) Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2.9 um3 449 Protein percentage by weight in mammalian tissue culture cell Unspecified 21.5 17-26 Percent 450 Nuclear:cell volume ratio Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.07 Unitless 451 Median cell volume of a haploid budding yeast in glucose medium (S288c background) Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 42 um3 452 Cell diameter Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5 um 453 Cell volume Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 66 um3 454 Cell length Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe 7 um 455 Cell diameter Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe 2 um 456 Cell volume Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe 22 um3 457 Cell length at division Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe 13.5 um 458 Mutation rate per base pair per replication Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2.2E-10 mutation/bp/replication 459 Mutation rate per genome per replication Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.0027 mutation/genome/replication 460 Genome Size Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 12156678 Base pairs 461 Diffusion rate of Myoglobin Sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus 11.3 10^-7*cm^2/sec 462 Molecular weight of Myoglobin Sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus 17800 Dalton 463 Protein percentage by weight in axoplasm Squid 5 Percent 464 Minimal generation time Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus 28.5 27-30 Minutes 465 Minimal generation time Bacteria Lactococcus lactis 26 Minutes 466 Minimal generation time Bacteria Lactococcus lactis 48 Minutes 467 Number of chlorophyll pigments in PSI Cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 96 unitless 468 Minimal generation time Bacteria Bacillus megaterium 25 Minutes 469 Molecular weight of Carbonic anhydrase B. amyloliq. 28800 Dalton 470 Diffusion rate of Carbonic anhydrase B. amyloliq. 10.7 10^-7*cm^2/sec 471 Water as percentage of the total wet weight in an axon Unspecified 87 Percent 472 Time for O2 replenishment by photosynthesis Not applicable 2000 years 473 Total CO2 in atmosphere Atmosphere 8E+14 kg 474 Number of genes Thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana 25498 unitless 475 Chromosome number (2n) Thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana 10 unitless 476 Chromosome number (2n) Mosquito Anapheles gambiae 6 unitless 477 Number of genes Mosquito Anapheles gambiae 13600 Genes 478 Genome Size Mosquito Anapheles gambiae 280000000 Base pairs 479 Chromosome number (2n) Adder's Tongue Fern 1262 unitless 480 Water flow through aquaporin 1 channel Generic 500000000 molecules/second 481 Globular protein volume Generic 0.000000066 um3 482 Globular protein diameter Generic 5 nm 483 Ribosome volume Generic 0.000014 um3 484 Ribosome diameter Generic 30 nm 485 Number of rRNA genes Bacteria Vibrio natriegens 13 Unitless 486 Free calcium(2+) intercellular blastocoel concentration African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1.12 plus/minus 0.04 mM 487 Total calcium(2+) in frog egg African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 6.5E-09 5x10-9 - 8x10-9 mol 488 Total magnesium(2+) in frog egg African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 1.45E-08 12x10-9 - 17x10-9 mol 489 Total potassium (1+) in frog egg African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 0.00000006 mol 490 Total sodium (1+) in frog egg African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 0.00000005 mol 491 Median cell size of a diploid budding yeast in glucose medium (S288c background) Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 82 um3 492 Mean nuclear volume of a haploid budding yeast in glucose medium (S288c background) Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2.9 SD of 0.9 um3 493 CO2 emissions due to vulcanism Biosphere 0.035 0.02-0.05 10^15 gram Carbon/year 494 Length of eukaryotic cilia and flagella Unspecified 10 um 495 Diameter of the smallest eukaryote Ostreococcus tauri Ostreococcus tauri 1 um 496 Percentage of human cancers worldwide attributable to viruses Human Homo sapiens 20 % 497 Increased risk of Kaposi's sarcoma in transplant patients Human Homo sapiens 450 400-500 fold increase 498 Increased risk of squamous cell vulvar and anal carcinomas in transplant patients Human Homo sapiens 100 fold increase 499 Mass of Escherichia coli in excess of displaced buffer Bacteria Escherichia coli 110 30 fg 500 Mass of Bacillus subtilis cell in excess of displaced buffer Bacteria Bacillus subtilis 150 40 fg 501 Diameter of Xenopus tropicalis eggs Frog Xenopus tropicalis 0.75 0.7 to 0.8 cm 502 Diameter of the egg of the frog Xenopus laevis Frog Xenopus laevis 1.15 1 to 1.3 cm 503 Number of eggs laid per spawning Frog Xenopus laevis 650 300 to 1000 eggs 504 Number of eggs laid per spawning Frog Xenopus tropicalis 5000 1000 to 9000 eggs 505 Genome size Frog Xenopus tropicalis 1700000000 base pairs 506 Generation time Frog Xenopus laevis 10 8 to 12 months 507 Generation time Frog Xenopus tropicalis 3.75 3 to 4.5 months 508 Diameter of peripheral blood lymphocytes Human Homo sapiens 7.5 8-Jul um 509 Diameter of monocytes Human Homo sapiens 15 18-Dec um 510 Diameter of erythrocytes Human Homo sapiens 7.5 um 511 Diameter of neutrophils and eosinophils Human Homo sapiens 11 12-Oct um 512 Percentage of the white blood cells in blood that are neutrophils Human Homo sapiens 60 50-70 % 513 Percentage of white blood cells in blood that are lymphocytes Human Homo sapiens 30 25-30 % 514 Percentage of white blood cells in blood that are monocytes Human Homo sapiens 5 7-Mar % 515 Diameter of plasma cells Human Homo sapiens 10.5 12-Sep um 516 Number of copies of the chromosome Cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 6.5 unitless 517 conversion efficiency from producers to primary consumers Ecosystem 10 Percent 518 Conversion efficiency from producers to primary consumers Ecosystem 17 Percent 519 Conversion efficiency from primary to secondary consumers Ecosystem 4.5 Percent 520 Shortest generation time of an insect Aphid Rhopalosiphum prunifolia 4.7 days 521 Mean volume of freshly isolated T cells from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes Mouse Mus musculus 131.4 plus/minus 3.9 um3 522 Development time egg to adult Drosophila melanogaster 7 days 523 Lifespan Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 30 days 524 GC content Green Algea Dunaliella viridis 51.1 Percent 525 GC content Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 64 Percent 526 GC content Cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 55.4 Percent 527 Number of genes Cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 2728 unitless 528 Genome size Cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 2796470 bp 529 GC content Bacteria Escherichia coli 50.8 Percent 530 Length Cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 3.1 5-Feb micron 531 cell diameter Cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC 6803 1 micron 532 prokaryote abundance in top 1m of soil in forest prokaryote 40000000 cells/gram of soil 533 prokaryote abundance in 1-8m depth of soil in forest prokaryote 1000000 cells/gram of soil 534 prokaryote abundance in top 1m of soil prokaryote 2000000000 cells/gram of soil 535 prokaryote abundance in 1-8m depth of soil prokaryote 100000000 cells/gram of soil 536 prokaryote abundance in 1-8m depth of soil prokaryote 100000000 cells/gram of soil 537 weight of a cubic meter of limestone Biosphere 2600000 g/m^3 538 estimate weight of a cubic meter of soil Biosphere 1000000 g/m^3 539 prokaryote abundance in top 1m of high metal abundance soil prokaryote 2000000000 plus/minus 9e7 g/dry weight of soil 540 prokaryote abundance in top 1m of low metal abundance soil prokaryote 2400000000 plus/minus 9e7 g/dry weight of soil 541 prokaryote abundance in top 1m of normal metal abundance soil prokaryote 2600000000 plus/minus 1e8 g/dry weight of soil 542 Surface area of earth covered by land Biosphere 148300000 km^2 543 Surface area of earth covered by water Biosphere 361800000 km^2 544 Percent of land covered by snow Biosphere 20 unitless 545 Percent of land covered by mountains Biosphere 20 unitless 546 Percent of land covered by dry lands Biosphere 20 unitless 547 Percent of land covered by good farmable lands Biosphere 30 unitless 548 Percent of land covered by no topsoil Biosphere 10 unitless 549 Number of prokaryotes in the top 200m of ocean prokaryote 3.60E+28 cells 550 Number of prokaryotes in the top 1m of soil prokaryote 2.60E+29 cells 551 Number of prokaryotes beneath 1m of soil prokaryote 0.25-2.5e30 cells 552 Number of prokaryotes beneath 200m of ocean prokaryote 6.50E+28 cells 553 Calculation of species diversity in non contaminated soil prokaryote 8300000 species/gram 554 Calculation of species diversity in low metal contaminated soil prokaryote 6400 species/gram 555 Calculation of species diversity in high metal contaminated soil prokaryote 790 species/gram 556 Number of prokaryotes in human colon prokaryote 7E+13 cells/organ 557 Number of prokaryotes in termite hindgut prokaryote 2700000 cells 558 Number of prokaryotes in cattle rumen prokaryote 2.00E+15 cells/organ 559 Number of prokaryotes in human colon world-wide prokaryote 3.90E+23 cell 560 Number of prokaryotes in termite hindgut world-wide prokaryote 6.50E+23 cell 561 Number of prokaryotes in cattle rumen world-wide prokaryote 2.90E+24 cell 562 Total ATP demand in hepatocyte cell Turtle 67 microMole ATP/g/hour 563 ATP demand for Na+ pump in hepatocyte cell as percent of total consumption Turtle 28.5 Percent 564 ATP demand for protein synthesis in hepatocyte cell as percent of total consumption Turtle 36.4 Percent 565 ATP demand for protein breakdown in hepatocyte cell as percent of total consumption Turtle 16.6 Percent 566 ATP demand for urea synthesis in hepatocyte cell as percent of total consumption Turtle 3 Percent 567 ATP demand for gluconeogenesis in hepatocyte cell as percent of total consumption Turtle 17 Percent 568 Total ATP demand in hepatocyte cell under anoxic conditions Turtle 6.3 microMole ATP/g/hour 569 Barbed end Actin-ATP association rate constant Unspecified 12 1/s 570 Barbed end Actin-ATP dissociation rate constant Unspecified 1.4 1/(uM*s) 571 Barbed end Actin-ADP association rate constant Unspecified 4 1/(uM*s) 572 Barbed end Actin-ADP dissociation rate constant Unspecified 8 1/s 573 Pointed end Actin-ATP association rate constant Unspecified 1.3 1/(uM*s) 574 Pointed end Actin-ATP dissociation rate constant Unspecified 0.8 1/s 575 Pointed end Actin-ADP association rate constant Unspecified 0.16 1/(uM*s) 576 Pointed end Actin-ADP dissociation rate constant Unspecified 0.3 1/s 577 Half time for hydrolysis of bound ATP-actin Unspecified 2 seconds 578 Half time of phosphate dissociation for ADP-Pi-actin Unspecified 350 seconds 579 Surface Area of Human Skin Human Homo sapiens 1.6-1.8 m^2 580 Length of a C. elegans nematode Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 1 mm 581 number of eggs layed during life span Nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae 300 Unitless 582 Number of somatic cell nuclei in an adult hermaphrodite Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 959 Unitless 583 Number of somatic cells in an adult male Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 1031 Unitless 584 number of cells in a hatched larvae Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 558 Unitless 585 Cellulose microfibrils tensile modulus Plants >10^11 N/m^2 586 Cell wall as percent of plant cell dry matter Plants 45-65 Percent 587 Cellulose as percent of cell wall Plants 35-50 Percent 588 Hemicellulose as percent of cell wall Plants 20-35 Percent 589 Lignin as percent of cell wall Plants 25-Oct Percent 590 Ratio of carbon to phosphorus in phytoplankton phytoplankton 106 unitless 591 Ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in phytoplankton phytoplankton 16 unitless 592 Ratio of silicon to phosphorus in phytoplankton Diatoms 15 unitless 593 Plasmodesmata openings in the cell wall as percentage of the surface area of a cell Plants 0.1-0.5 Percent 594 Number of plasmodesmata openings in the cell wall per square micrometer Plants 10-Feb micron^(-2) 595 Plasmodesmata diameter Plants 50 20-200 nanometer 596 Carbon content in organic dry matter Biosphere 0.45-0.5 g C per g dry matter 597 Total terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) of the biosphere Biosphere 120 Pg dry weight/year 598 Genome size and chromosome number database website Generic Database link N/A 599 BRENDA - a database of enzyme properties Generic Database link N/A 600 CyberCell Project - statistics on the bacteria E.coli Bacteria Escherichia coli Database link N/A 601 yeastgfp - a database of protein abundance in yeast Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Database link N/A 602 Net primary producitivty - collection of references and values Biosphere Database link N/A 603 Total net primary productivity of the biosphere (terrestrial and oceanic) Biosphere 1.70E+17 g dry weight/year 604 Present day geothermal energy produced by earth Biosphere 0.0292 W·m^-2 605 Energy content of carbohydrate Generic 39.9 kJ/ gC 606 Global net primary productivity in terms of energy units Biosphere 0.21 W/m^(-2) 607 Mutation rate of HIV reverse transcriptase in cells HIV 0.00003 mutations per bp per cycle 608 Half-life of HIV infected cells in-vivo HIV 1.6 days 609 Half-life of free HIV virions in plasma HIV 28-110 minutes 610 Daily production HIV particles in untreated patients HIV 1E+11 Virus particles per day 611 Affinity of transcription factors for nonspecific DNA Generic 10^(-3)-10^(-6) M 612 Concentration of DNA binding sites inside the cell Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.01 M 613 Diffusion coefficient of human serum albumin in water Human Homo sapiens 0.00000061 cm2/s 614 Diffusion coefficient of insulin in water Human Homo sapiens 0.0000015 cm2/s 615 Diffusion coefficient of sucrose in water Unspecified 0.0000052 cm2/s 616 Diffusion coefficient of oxygen in water Unspecified 0.000018 cm2/s 617 Diffusion coefficient of oxygen in air Unspecified 0.2 cm2/s 618 The ratio of the energy flux needed to support a living cell to the output flux from the sun (for same weight) Unspecified 100000 unitless 619 Actin stall force Unspecified 7.7 -1.3 pN per Filament 620 Actin, density of barbed ends at the leading edge of a protrusion Unspecified 1370 -578 Filaments/micrometer square 621 focal adhesion stress on substrate Unspecified 5.5 -2 nN*micron^(-2) 622 Mean wall shear stress in an aorta Unspecified 4.7-10.4 dynes/cm^2 623 Smallest genome of an endosymbiont bacteria Carsonella ruddii 159662 bp 624 The Protein Kinase Complement of the Human Genome Human Homo sapiens 518 unitless 625 The number of kinases in the mouse kinome Mouse Mus musculus 540 unitless 626 The number of kinases in the c. elegans kinome Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 438 unitless 627 Genomics, evolution and function of protein kinases Generic Database link N/A 629 Alanine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 9.6 Percent 630 Arginine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 5.5 Percent 631 Aspartate & asparginine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 9 Percent 632 Cysteine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 1.7 Percent 633 Glutamate & glutamine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 9.8 Percent 634 Glycine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 11.5 Percent 635 Histidine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 1.8 Percent 636 Isoleucine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 5.4 Percent 637 Leucine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 8.4 Percent 638 Lysine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 6.4 Percent 639 Methionine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 2.9 Percent 640 Phenylalanine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 3.5 Percent 641 Proline abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 4.1 Percent 642 Serine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 4 Percent 643 Threonine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 4.7 Percent 644 Tryptophan abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 1.1 Percent 645 Tyrosine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 2.6 Percent 646 Valine abundance Bacteria Escherichia coli 7.9 Percent 647 Ratio of energy expenditure for protein polymerization to mRNA polymerization Bacteria Escherichia coli 20 unitless 648 Number of metabolic compounds Bacteria Escherichia coli 442 unitless 649 Number of metabolic compounds Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae >700 unitless 650 ORF transcriptome: expression levels, half lives and transcriptional freqency Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Database link N/A 651 elemental composition - percent carbon in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 50 Percent 652 elemental composition - percent oxygen in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 20 Percent 653 elemental composition - percent nitrogen in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 14 Percent 654 elemental composition - percent hydrogen in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 8 Percent 655 elemental composition - percent phosphorus in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 3 Percent 656 elemental composition - percent potassium in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 2 Percent 657 elemental composition - percent sulfur in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 1 Percent 658 elemental composition - percent calcium in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.05 Percent 659 elemental composition - percent magnesium in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.05 Percent 660 elemental composition - percent chlorine in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.05 Percent 661 elemental composition - percent iron in dry mass Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.2 Percent 662 elemental composition - percent trace elements in dry mass (manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, molybdenum) Bacteria Escherichia coli 0.3 Percent 663 average RNA polymerase II transcription elongation rate Mammalian tissue culture cell 6.3 nt/sec 664 maximum RNA polymerase II transcription elongation rate Mammalian tissue culture cell 71.6 nt/sec 665 RNA polymerase II pause residence time Mammalian tissue culture cell 240 204-307 seconds 666 single molecule RNA polymerase II transcription rates Generic 12.8 SD=4.9 nt/sec 667 Peclet number for hydrodynamic flow of metabolites outside Volvox carteri Volvox carteri 100-300 unitless 668 DNA double helix diameter Generic 20 A 669 DNA helix rise per base pair Generic 3.4 A 670 DNA base pairs per helical turn Generic 10.5 unitless 671 distance per turn of the double helix in DNA Generic 36 unitless 672 Number of RelA molecules per fibroblast of average volume 2000 um3 Human Homo sapiens 60000 molecules per cell 673 Water use efficency (WUE) in C3 plants Plants 3-Jan g CO2 per kg H2O 674 Water use efficency (WUE) in C4 plants Plants 5-Feb g CO2 per kg H2O 675 Water use efficency (WUE) in CAM plants Plants Oct-40 g CO2 per kg H2O 676 Net rate of photosynthesis JCO2 Plants 10 microMol CO2 per m^2 per sec 677 flux density of water vapor loss in a leaf Plants 4.3 milliMol H2O per m^2 per sec 678 Number of non-reproducing, biflagellated somatic cells Volvox carteri 2000 cells/colony 679 Number of nonflagellated, reproductive cells Volvox carteri 16 cells/colony 680 Investment in reproductive structures as percent of total above-ground productivity oak trees 2–27 Percent 681 GC content Human Homo sapiens 41 Percent 682 GC content Thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana 36 Percent 683 Number of genes Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 15143 Genes 684 Number of tRNA Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 259 Unitless 685 Number of tRNA Human Homo sapiens 497 Unitless 686 Number of tRNA Thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana 589 Unitless 687 Doubling time of cell lines Human Homo sapiens Database link N/A 688 Amino acid indices, substitution matrices and pair-wise contact potentials Generic Database link N/A 689 planets in solar system Generic 8 9-Aug Unitless 690 brain weights amd composition Generic Database link N/A 691 Average brain weight Human Homo sapiens 1300 - 1400 gram 692 Average number of neurons in the brain Human Homo sapiens 1E+11 unitless 693 Average number of glial cells in brain per neuron Human Homo sapiens Oct-50 unitless 694 Length of myelinated nerve fibers in brain Human Homo sapiens 150,000-180,000 km 695 Number of synapses in cortex Human Homo sapiens 1.5E+14 unitless 696 Time until unconsciousness after loss of blood supply to brain Human Homo sapiens 10-Aug sec 697 Time until reflex loss after loss of blood supply to brain Human Homo sapiens 40-110 sec 698 Number of fibers in human optic nerve Human Homo sapiens 1200000 unitless 699 Number of inner hair cells in cochlea Human Homo sapiens 3500 unitless 700 Number of outer hair cells in cochlea Human Homo sapiens 12000 unitless 701 Hearing frequency range Human Homo sapiens 20-20000 Hertz 702 Total number of taste buds Human Homo sapiens 10000 unitless 703 Diameter of taste bud Human Homo sapiens 30-60 micron 704 Number of receptors on each taste bud Human Homo sapiens 50-150 unitless 705 Number of olfactory receptor cells Human Homo sapiens 12000000 unitless 706 Number of cilia per olfactory receptor cell Human Homo sapiens 30-Oct unitless 707 Average time between blinks Human Homo sapiens 2.8 sec 708 Average duration of a single eye blink Human Homo sapiens 0.1-0.4 sec 709 Number of retinal cone receptor cells Human Homo sapiens 5000000-6000000 unitless 710 Number of retinal rod receptor cells Human Homo sapiens 120-140 million unitless 711 Amount of photons necessary to excite a rod Human Homo sapiens 1 unitless 712 Amount of photons necessary to excite a cone Human Homo sapiens 100 unitless 713 Weight of skin Human Homo sapiens 4.1 kg 714 Number of tactile receptors in the hand Human Homo sapiens 17000 unitless 715 Thermal pain threshold Human Homo sapiens 45 deg C 716 Mass of a large sensory neuron Human Homo sapiens 0.000001 gram 717 Number of synapses for a "typical" neuron Human Homo sapiens 1000-10000 unitless 718 Conduction velocity of action potential Unspecified 0.6-120 m/s 719 Single sodium pump maximum transport rate of Na ions Unspecified 200 1/s 720 Single sodium pump maximum transport rate of K ions Unspecified 130 1/s 721 Typical number of sodium pumps Unspecified 1000 pumps/micron^2 722 Total number of sodium pumps for a small neuron Unspecified 1000000 unitless 723 Typical synaptic cleft distance Unspecified 20-40 nanometer 724 Number of molecules of neurotransmitter in one synaptic vesicle Unspecified 5000 unitless 725 percent brain utilization of total resting oxygen Human Homo sapiens 20 percent

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