User:Sammy Saqer/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU

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March 23, 2014: Introduction: The sixth lab of this section is called "Embryology and Zebrafish Development". The purpose of this lab is to learn the stages of embryonic development, compare embryonic development in different organisms, and set up an experiment to study how environmental conditions affect embryonic development.

Materials and Methods: 20 zebra fish eggs were placed into two different plates. One plate was filled with 10 mL of water and another with 10 mL of caffeine. The fish were then observed after five days, seven days, and twelve days. After the seventh day, three fish from each dish were placed in a preservative for extra examination on the fourteenth day. Observations of the fish were made on each day.

Observations and Data: On the fifth day of the experiment, the first observations were made. In the caffeine dish, all but two of the eggs were hatched and none were dead and 16 of the fish were mobile. The observations of the water petri dish showed that one remained unhatched and none were found dead. Overall, the fish from the caffeine plate were developing at a slower rate. Observations were then recorded after a week. In the caffeine plate, the fish still were developing at a slower rate and appeared to have a larger remaining yolk. In the water dish, still one egg didn't hatch. The movements and eyes of the water fish moved a lot faster than those in the caffeine. In both the dishes, the eyes were in full range of movement. On the last day (day 12), all the fish in all the dishes were dead. No more observations were taken. This was due to the lack of food for the fish. On the fourteenth day, six fishes preserved from the seventh day were observed under the microscope. The results are as follows:

Caffeine Fish: Eye diameter (micrometers): 25, 25, and 25 Tail Length (micrometers): 250, 250, and 250 Total Length (micrometers): 350, 350, and 325 Water Fish: Eye Diameter (micrometers): 35, 32.5, and 35 Tail Length (micrometers): 250, 250, and 250 Total Length (micrometers): 375, 362.5, and 369

Water Dish Exagemple.jpg Caffeine Dish Exaaserfmple.jpg Water Fish Exalijmple.jpg Caffeine Fish Exa9ieemple.jpg

Conclusion: After total observations, the results show that the caffeine fish were much smaller and grew at a slower rate. The fish in the water moved a lot faster than the fish in the caffeine plate. Also, the eye's of the fish in the water plate moved much more than the fish in the caffeine plate. This could be due to the toxicity of the environment. Fish were not meant to grow in caffeine. Water is the better environment for the fish to grow.

March 2,2014: Introduction: The fifth lab of this section is called "Invertebrates:. The purpose of this lab is to understand the importance of invertebrates and to learn how simple systems evolved into more complex systems.

Materials and Methods: The first step of the lab is was to observe the different worms given. Next was to get liquid from the funnel that was set up the last lab and observe the invertebrates in the liquid that came from the transect.

Observations and Data: The three different worms moved by contracting their bodies, and then stretching their bodies back to their original length. This contraction helps them move forward slowly. This is a photo of the pseudocoelomate structure. IMG8798.JPG In transect 5, only one invertebrate was found from the funnel. The organism was labeled as Springtail X Primitive insect. The organism was 2mm long and had 2 antennas, 6 legs, and 6 body segments. File:PIC Other organisms were also observed, but were not from the transect File:PIC Organism 1File:PIC Organism 2File:PIC Organism 3File:PIC Organism 4File:PIC

Conclusion: This lab shows that invertebrates are the most common organisms in leaf litter. Of all the invertebrates observed, the arthropoda seemed to be the largest. Only one invertebrate was found in the transect, however there could be many more. This lack of invertebrates could be due to a bad sample, or because the transect is teeming with more abiotic factors than biotic factors. In regards to vertebrates, there could be a different amount of vertebrates in this transect. When observed, there didn't seem to be any vertebrates in the transect. However, there could be from time to time a passing squirrel or bird in the transect. The transect is has more abiotic characteristics than biotic characteristics, so that is why there is a lack of vertebrates in the transect.

February 23, 2014: Introduction: The fourth lab of this section is called "Plante and Fungi". The purpose of this lab is to understand the characteristics and diversity of plants and appreciate the function and importance of fungi.

Materials and Methods: Use the bags to place a sample of leaves with soil, and then use the other two bags to place plants from the transect. Next observe the plants under the microscope and determine the plants vascularization. Next, examine the moss of the leaves and note the plant specialization. After, observe the moss and determine the male and female gametophytes and the sporophyte. Lastly, observe several different fungi under a microscope. When finished with the observing portion, next is to set up the lab for next week. First step is to pour 25mL of 50:50 ethanol/water solution into a flask and tape it to the bottom of a funnel. In the funnel place the leave and soil found from the transect into the flask and place the apparatus under a light bulb.

Observations and Data: Examsdple.jpg There was only three plants found in transect 5. Grass, weeds, and rosebush were the only plants in the area. The grass is very typical, straight, green, and parallel. The weed is also very typical being long, green, and straight. The rosebush is thorny and seems very dry due to the cold weather outside. All three plants are vascular. The grass and the weeds do not have leaves. The rosebush has very brown and wilted leaves. The leaves are also very sharp at the ends. The grass and the weeds do not have seeds. The rosebush is a monocot.

Conclusion: This lab shows the diversity of plants in the transect which is a small representation on the whole world. There can be a differentiation of plants through their vascularization, their reproduction, and their leaves. Overall, this lab emphasized the diversity of plants in the world.

February 16, 2014: Introduction: The third lab of this section is called "Microbiology and Identifying Bacteria with DNA". The purpose of this lab is to understand the characteristics f bacteria, to observe antibiotic resistance, and to understand how DNA sequences are used to identify species.

Material and Methods: The materials needed for this lab are as follows: 7 agar plates from the last lab, hay infusion culture, microscope, slides, cover slips, bin, gram staining material, materials for PCR reactions, sterile loops, and micropipets.The first part of this lab is to analyze the agar plates and count the bacteria colonies on each and fill out the chart. Then to analyze the differences of the plates with and without the tetracycline. Next is to label colonies with a wax pencil and then use those colonies on a wet mount and analyze their characteristics under a microscope. Lastly, prepare a gram test on the wet mounts and prepare a PCR reaction for the next lab.

Observations and Data: The agar plates seem to have evaporated water on the glass and some dirt seems to be missing. The agar plates with the tetracycline had less colonies than the plates without. Also, the plates with tetracycline has only convex, circular orange colonies, while the other plate without has many different shaped colonies of blue, white, and orange. IMG 8834.jpg IMG 8836.jpg IMG 8839.jpg The Fusiform Bacilli tested gram negative, the figure C. spirilum from the white colony tested gram positive, and the figure C. spirlilum from the orange colony tested gram negative.

Conclusion: There was significant difference in the bacteria grown with tetracycline and without. This procedure can be helpful to learn more of antibiotic resistance and the growth of bacteria.

February 9, 2014: Introduction: The second lab of this section is called "Identifying Algae and Protists". The purpose of this lab is to understand how to use a dichotomous key and to understand the characteristics of Algae and Protists.

Materials and Methods: The materials needed for this lab are as follows: microscope, slides, slide covers, two page dichotomous key, protozoa, 4 sterile 10 mL tubes, micropipettes, hay infusion culture, and agar plates. The first part of this lab is to place the protozoa on a slide and then view it under a microscope. Using the dichotomous key, label the organisms observed under the microscope. The second part of the lab is to place the liquid from the jar with the 50 mL sample from the transect onto a agar plate. Then prepare 100 fold dilutions of the hay infusion culture.

Observations and Data: After observing the protozoa under the microscope, there was paramecium multimicronucleatum (220 um) and blepharisma sp. (480um). Next was the observation of the culture in the jar. The water was brown and foggy. There seemed to be no life in the jar, only floating grass and dirt. Next the water from the top of the jar was observed under the microscope, showing there was peranema sp., colpidium and pandorina. The bottom of the jar contained pandorina, paramecium bursaria, and chilomonas sp.. The only mobile organisms were the colpidium and pandorina in the top of the jar. If the infusion was observed for two more months, then the organisms already in the jar would reproduce to fill the jar with more of their species. Selective pressures from the jar can include lack of sunlight, wetness, and lack of air in closed jar. IMG 8791.JPG

February 9, 2014: Introduction: The first lab is called "Biological Life at AU". The purpose of this lab is to understand natural selection and the biotic and abiotic characteristics of a niche.

Materials and Methods:The materials needed for this lab are as follows: microscope, slides, slide covers, pipettes, a sample of chlamydomonas, a sample of gonium, a sample of volvox, and 50 mL tube. The first part of the lab is to place a drop of chlamydomonas, gonium, and volvox each on a different slide and place a slide cover on top. After a slide is made for each organism, then the next step is to observe each slide under a microscope and mark their characteristics. The second part of the lab is to collect soil or surface plant sample in the 40 mL tube from a transect, which is a 20x20 foot area given by the lab instructor, and observe the general characteristics of the transect.

Observations and Data: When observing the volvocine line, it is clear that the species becomes more complex as it evolves. Although evolution does not always lead to a more complex species in nature, it does in the volvocine line. The chlamydomonas is the least complex, with the least amount of colonies. Then comes the gonium, with a a more complex nature than the chlamydomonas and more colonies. Lastly, the most complex organism is the volvox with the most colonies of the three. After observing transect 5, there were many observable characteristics. Transect 5 is located in front of Hurst in Eric Friedheim Quadrangle. The topography of the land is generally flat with grass and concrete. There is a mound where the soil is piled up under the bush. The biotic factors are grass, bushes, bugs, and weeds. The abiotic factors are concrete, stones, bench, rocks, sign, soil, litter, and fallen leaves.