User:Samiye Yaman/Notebook/Lab 571/2012/08/29

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==Description== Biomineralization is a rapidly expanding field focusing on the synthesis of metal nanoparticles using biomolecules to control nanoparticle creation [1, 2]. Recently, Bakshi et al have synthesized gold nanoparticles in a non-toxic manner using chloroauric acid and bovine serum albumin [3]. Nanoparticles created in this manner have the potential to be functionalized and used in biotechnological applications such as tumor detection and rheumatoid arthritis treatment [4, 5].

Gold nanoparticles are already utilized in many types of microscopy [6]. Zheng et al report that metal nanoparticles can be used as universal probes for five types of microscopy: bright field, dark field, fluorescence, Raman, and two-photon excitation microscopy [7]. In addition, functionalized gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used to treat tumors. Pissuwan et al found that gold nanoparticles resonate in response to incoming radiation, causing them to absorb and scatter light [8] . This can be utilized to destroy tissue through local heating. In addition, Pissuwan et al found that gold nanoparticles can be conjugated to become biologically active, meaning that it could be possible to use them to target specific tissues for destruction [8].

In this study, we will examine the effects of various refolding buffers on the nanoparticle aggregation. Additionally, the most favorable method for adding refolding buffers into nanoparticle solution will also be investigated. By using UV/VIS spectroscopy, it will be possible to determine which refolding buffer allows for the most stability. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using a protein called Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Chloroauric Acid (HAuCl4). Water was used as the buffer in the reaction. BSA can be in either the folded or unfolded form. The physical state of BSA plays a vital role in biomineralization as it affects the physical properties of the Au NPs synthesized. After the formation of the purple fibers, various refolding buffers will be examined in order to find out the most stable solution.


   -0.5 g of polyvinyl alcohol (MW:22000) is added with 3 mL of water.