User:Katelyn R. Porter/Notebook/0717 Embryology

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Embryology

Purpose: to learn the stages of embryonic development and compare the development in starfish, frogs, and chickens.


Materials and Methods

1. A prepared slide of starfish embryonic developmental stages was observed under a microscope.

2. Prepared slides of the frog embryonic developmental stages were observed under a microscope.

3. The larval stage of frogs was observed under a dissection microscope.

4. A prepared slide of a chick embryo after differentiation was observed under a microscope.

5. A 72 hour chick embryo was observed under a dissection microscope.


Data and Observations

Table 1: Comparison of Embryological Features of Developing Starfish, Frog, Chick, and Human

Table 1 Embryology.png


Table 2: Comparison of Ecological Aspects in Starfish, Frog, Chick, and Human

Table 2 Embryology.png


The starfish eggs were very small in comparison to frog and chick eggs. Their yolk was isolecithal, therefore they undergo holoblastic cleavage and blastulation into blastomeres. During gastrulation they form an archenteron, a cavity that will then transform into the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. Subsequently, the development of organs, organogenesis, occurs and bipannaria larva are formed.

Starfish cleavage/blastulation and gastrulation stages:

Starfish 1.JPG Starfish 2.JPG


The frog eggs were moderately sized in comparison to the others. They contained moderately telolecithal yolk and undergo holoblastic cleavage and blastulation into micromeres, small animal cells, and macromeres, large vegetal cells. An asymmetrical blastula is produced because the vegetal cells divide more slowly than the animal cells. During gastrulation a neural tube is formed, a process called neurulation, and other organs are formed during organogenesis.

Frog blastulation and gastrulation stages:

Frog blast.JPG Frog gast.JPG


The bird eggs are very large in comparison to the others. Their yolk was telolecithal and they undergo meroblastic cleavage and blastulation, producing a blastodisk then blastocoel. During gastrulation, the opening of the blastodisk forms a primitive streak, subsequently forming the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.

Chick embryo after differentiation:

Chick embryo.JPG


Human eggs contain isolecithal yolk and undergo holoblastic cleavage and blastulation to form an embryoblast or blastocyst. The blastocyst then implants into the uterine wall of the mother and a placenta develops.

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