User:James C. Schwabacher/Notebook/CHEM-571/2015/01/28

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First trial of synthesizing PVA-Alginate beads with and without NaMT


Procedure adapted from | Kuo-Ying Amanda Wu and Keith D. Wisecarver (1992)<br.>

  1. Prepare an aqueous solution of 13% PVA and 0.02% sodium alginate at 60°C (Stir plate on 3rd setting: ~68°C)
    • 1 gram of PVA and 0.16 g of sodium alginate in 7 mL of water (12.5% PVA and ~0.02% alginate)
      • Add alginate while stirring PVA-water solution
    • ~0.1 g of nanocomposites should be added to this mixture where applicable
  2. Cool dissolved and mixed solution to 35°C
  3. Prepare 210 mL of saturated citric acid with 2% calcium chloride
    1. Add 4.2 grams of calcium chloride to 210 mL of water
    2. Add citric acid to saturation (32 g citric acid)
      • 14.7g/100mL > 30.87 g/210 for solubility comparable to boric acid
  4. Add the PVA-Alg-Nanocomposite mixture drop-wise (by syringe) to the gently stirring (stir plate 3) citric acid-calcium chloride solution using a thin needle
  5. Stir for 24hrs to allow solidification
  6. Rinse with water to remove excess reactants


  • PVA-Alg
    • 1.015 g PVA
    • 0.1649 g alginate
  • PVA-Alg #2
    • 0.998 g PVA
    • 0.159 g Alg
  • PVA-Alg-NaMT
    • 0.999 g PVA
    • 0.161 g alginate
    • 0.109 g NaMT
  • Saturated citric acid, 2% calcium chloride solution
    • 4.224 g (PVA-Alg), 4.231 g (PVA-Alg-NaMT), 4.207 g (PVA-Alg #2) calcium chloride
    • 32.363 g (PVA-Alg), 32.330 g (PVA-Alg-NaMT), 32.267 g (PVA-Alg #2) citric acid


  • PVA-Alg beads pumped with syringe made fiber like clusters
    • not cooled at all
    • dropped in the middle
  • PVA-Alg-NaMT beads made with disposable dropper
    • cooled 20 seconds in dropper
    • dropped along side
  • Turn heat off but keep stirring to prevent clumping pre-bead forming
  • Let cool in dropper before dropping
  • Move to Dr Fox's automated pumper when repeating bead synthesis
  • Use wide dish
  • PVA-Alg #2 done in wide dish, dropped with disposable dropper, turn off heat ~1 min before dropping
  • Don't fill disposable dropper all the way > cooling solution will come out


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