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## Mean & Co-variance of random vectors

Define: $\vec{X} = (X_1, X_2,...,X_m)$ and $\vec{Y} = (Y_1, Y_2,...,Y_n)$

$E[\vec{X}] = (E[X_1], E[X_2], ..., E[X_m])$

$Cov(X,Y) = E[(X-E[X])(Y-E[Y))^T] = m x n$ matrix with $i,j$ element equal to $Cov(X_i,Y_j)$

Suppose A = p x m matrix, b $\in R^n$, C = q x n matrix, d $\in R^q$. $A = (a_{i,j}), b = (b_i)$

• Claim: E[AX + b] = AE[X] + b

Proof: ith element of $AX + B = \sum_{j=1}^m a_{i,j}X_j + b_i$ so

$E[\sum_{j=1}^m a_{i,j}X_j + b_i] = \sum_{j=1}^m a_{i,j}E[X_j] + b_i =$ ith element of $AE[X] + b$

• Claim: Suppose $Cov(X,Y) = V = (v_{i,j})$ then $Cov(AX+b, CY+d) = AVC^T$

Proof involves first considering the $i,j$ element of $AX+b$ and $CY+d$ then taking the covariance of both of these elements. By properties of 1D covariances, it works out that the $i,j$ element is just $(AVC^T)_{i,j}$

• Claim: The covariance matrix $\sum$ is positive defiinite

Proof: $\forall b \in R^n,$

$0 \le Var(b^TX) = Cov(b^TX, b^TX) = b^TCov(X,X)(b^T)^T = b^T \sum b$

And obviously $\sum$ is symmetric thus by definition $\sum$ is pd.

## Useful results of multivariate normals

• Definition of Multivariate normal

$\vec{X} = (X_1, X_2,...,X_n)$ is multivariate normal if $\vec{X}$ can be written as:

$\vec{X} = AZ+b$ for some non-random matrix $A$ and non-random vector $b$ with $\vec{Z} = (Z_1, Z_2, ..., Z_n)$ with $Z_1, .., Z_n$ iid N(0,1).

From previous results, $E[X] = A0 + b = b$ and $Cov(X,X) = AIA^T = AA^T = \sum$.

• Density of MVN

Defining $\sum = AA^T$, we have $\| \sum \| = \| A A^T \| = \| A \| \| A^T \| = \| A \|$ and $\sum^-1 = (AA^T)^{-1} = (A^{-1})^TA^{-1}$

$f_X(x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}^2\|\sum\|^{frac{1}{2}}$