User:Tkadm30/Notebook/chim trills notebook

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Master thesis

1. Unilateral/clandestine solar geoengineering activity is a source of air pollution/particulate matter. (PM2.5)

2. The nanotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and genotoxicity of PM2.5 exposure on human health requires further investigations.

3. The differential effects of chronic PM2.5 exposure on the neuroimmune system, lung/brain axis, stress-induced neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer, Parkinson) requires additional research. [1]

4. TLR4 activation is implicated in the dopaminergic neurotoxicity of chronic PM2.5 exposure. [2]

Differential pathophysiological effects of long-term exposure to PM2.5

Cardiovascular system

  • Effects of particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution on cardiovascular diseases. [3]
    • Increase in blood pressure (hypertension) [4]
    • The association of annual air pollution exposure with blood pressure among patients with sleep-disordered breathing. [5]
  • Dysregulation of miRNA expression levels. [6]

Central nervous system

  • Alzheimer disease [7][8]
  • Parkinson disease [8]
  • PM2.5 exposure may cause chronic neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. [9][10][11][12]
  • PM2.5 exposure may induce selective neurotoxicity through glutamatergic signaling and increase NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. [10][13]
  • Cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1beta, and CD14 signaling upregulation. [14]
  • Microglia-mediated dopaminergic neurotoxicity. [8]
    • TLR4 signaling mediate microglial activation

Endocrine system

  • Decrease of serum testosterone levels [15]
  • Increase of serum estradiol levels [15]
  • Autoimmune disorders [16]

Epigenetic system

  • Differential DNA methylation [17]

Limbic system

  • Exposure to PM2.5 causes genetic changes in fetal rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. [18]

Lymphatic system

  • Lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA/RNA damage. [19]

Respiratory system

  • AECOPD [9]
  • Lung cancer [20]

Nanotoxicity of functionalized aerosolized nanoparticles

  • Open Question: How to determine the nanotoxicity potential of aerosolized nanoparticles using computational simulation of chronic PM2.5 exposure?

Identification of possible psychocomputational nanodevices with piezoelectric properties

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)

  • Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)
  • Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs)
  • Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)
  • Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) [21]
  • Aluminium oxide nanoparticles (AONPs)




aerosol, bioaerosol, functionalized nanoparticles, aluminium oxide, particulate matter, PM2.5, gulf war syndrome, chronic neuroinflammation, vapor phase oxidation, hydrocarbons, barium, gold, microglia, MAC1, monodisperse aerosol, condensation, drug delivery, TLR4


  1. [Gilmour-2004]

    Differential pulmonary inflammation and in vitro cytotoxicity of size-fractionated fly ash particles from pulverized coal combustion.

  2. [Yao-2013]

    Toll-like receptor 4 mediates microglial activation and production of inflammatory mediators in neonatal rat brain following hypoxia: role of TLR4 in hypoxic microglia.

  3. [Brook-2010]

    Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

  4. [Balasubramanian-2013]

    Differential effects of inhalation exposure to PM2.5 on hypothalamic monoamines and corticotrophin releasing hormone in lean and obese rats.

  5. [Liu-2016]

    The association of annual air pollution exposure with blood pressure among patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

  6. [Lu-2015]

    Ambient particulate matter and microRNAs in extracellular vesicles: a pilot study of older individuals

  7. [Jung-2015]

    Ozone, particulate matter, and newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

  8. [Levesque-2013]

    The Role of MAC1 in Diesel Exhaust Particle-induced Microglial Activation and Loss of Dopaminergic Neuron Function

  9. [Lei-2015]

    Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD.

  10. [Liu-2015]

    Macrophages treated with particulate matter PM2.5 induce selective neurotoxicity through glutaminase-mediated glutamate generation.

  11. [Riva-2011]

    Low dose of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can induce acute oxidative stress, inflammation and pulmonary impairment in healthy mice.

  12. [Levesque-2011]

    Diesel exhaust activates and primes microglia: air pollution, neuroinflammation, and regulation of dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  13. [Morgan-2011]

    Glutamatergic neurons in rodent models respond to nanoscale particulate urban air pollutants in vivo and in vitro.

  14. [Solt-2008]

    Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults.

  15. [Lavicoli-2013]

    The Effects of Nanomaterials as Endocrine Disruptors.

  16. [Bernatsky-2016]

    Fine particulate air pollution, nitrogen dioxide, and systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease in Calgary, Alberta.

  17. [Brennan-2016]

    Long-term ambient particle exposures and blood DNA methylation age: findings from the VA normative aging study.

  18. [Chao-2017]

    Exposure to PM2.5 causes genetic changes in fetal rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

  19. [Ambroz-2016]

    Impact of air pollution on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in mothers and their newborns.

  20. [Hamra-2014]

    Outdoor particulate matter exposure and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

  21. [Yarjanli-2017]

    Iron oxide nanoparticles may damage to the neural tissue through iron accumulation, oxidative stress, and protein aggregation.

  22. [Herndon-2015]

    Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health

  23. [Herndon-2016]

    Human and Environmental Dangers Posed by Ongoing Global Tropospheric Aerosolized Particulates for Weather Modification.

  24. [Cheng-2010]

    Chemical Composition of Aerosols from Kerosene Heaters Burning Jet Fuels.


Copyright (C) 2012-2018 Etienne Robillard

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document Under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".