User:Etienne Robillard/Notebook/chim trills notebook

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Hypothesis

1. Unilateral/clandestine solar geoengineering activity is a source of air pollution/particulate matter. (PM2.5)

2. The nanotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and genotoxicity of PM2.5 exposure on human health requires further investigations.

3. The differential effects of chronic PM2.5 exposure on the neuroimmune system, lung/brain axis, stress-induced neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer, Parkinson) requires additional research. [1]

4. TLR4 activation is implicated in the dopaminergic neurotoxicity of chronic PM2.5 exposure. [2]

Differential effects of long-term exposure to PM2.5

Cardiovascular system

  • Effects of particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution on cardiovascular diseases. [3]
    • Increase in blood pressure (hypertension) [4]
    • The association of annual air pollution exposure with blood pressure among patients with sleep-disordered breathing. [5]
  • Dysregulation of miRNA expression levels. [6]

Central nervous system

  • Alzheimer disease [7][8]
  • Parkinson disease [8]
  • PM2.5 exposure may cause chronic neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. [9][10][11][12]
  • PM2.5 exposure may induce selective neurotoxicity through glutamatergic signaling and increase NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. [10][13]
  • Cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1beta, and CD14 signaling upregulation. [14]
  • Microglia-mediated dopaminergic neurotoxicity. [8]
    • TLR4 signaling mediate microglial activation

Endocrine system

  • Decrease of serum testosterone levels [15]
  • Increase of serum estradiol levels [15]
  • Autoimmune disorders [16]

Epigenetic system

  • Differential DNA methylation [17]

Limbic system

  • Exposure to PM2.5 causes genetic changes in fetal rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. [18]

Lymphatic system

  • Lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA/RNA damage. [19]

Respiratory system

  • AECOPD [9]
  • Lung cancer [20]

Nanotoxicity of functionalized metallic nanoparticles

How to determine nanotoxicity potential of metallic nanoparticles using computational simulation of chronic PM2.5 exposure?

  • Gold nanoparticles (AuNP)
  • Silica nanoparticles (SiNP)
  • Silver

Notes

Resources

Keywords

aerosol, bioaerosol, functionalized nanoparticles, aluminium oxide, particulate matter, PM2.5, gulf war syndrome, chronic neuroinflammation, vapor phase oxidation, hydrocarbons, barium, gold, microglia, MAC1, monodisperse aerosol, condensation, drug delivery, TLR4


References

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15061611 [Gilmour-2004]
    Differential pulmonary inflammation and in vitro cytotoxicity of size-fractionated fly ash particles from pulverized coal combustion.
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23388509 [Yao-2013]
    Toll-like receptor 4 mediates microglial activation and production of inflammatory mediators in neonatal rat brain following hypoxia: role of TLR4 in hypoxic microglia.
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20458016 [Brook-2010]
    Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402685/ [Balasubramanian-2013]
    Differential effects of inhalation exposure to PM2.5 on hypothalamic monoamines and corticotrophin releasing hormone in lean and obese rats.
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580727 [Liu-2016]
    The association of annual air pollution exposure with blood pressure among patients with sleep-disordered breathing.
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4782360/ [Lu-2015]
    Ambient particulate matter and microRNAs in extracellular vesicles: a pilot study of older individuals
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25310992 [Jung-2015]
    Ozone, particulate matter, and newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3660420/ [Levesque-2013]
    The Role of MAC1 in Diesel Exhaust Particle-induced Microglial Activation and Loss of Dopaminergic Neuron Function
  9. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2015.00294/full [Lei-2015]
    Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD.
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25913161 [Liu-2015]
    Macrophages treated with particulate matter PM2.5 induce selective neurotoxicity through glutaminase-mediated glutamate generation.
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21506876 [Riva-2011]
    Low dose of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can induce acute oxidative stress, inflammation and pulmonary impairment in healthy mice.
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21561831 [Levesque-2011]
    Diesel exhaust activates and primes microglia: air pollution, neuroinflammation, and regulation of dopaminergic neurotoxicity.
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21724521 [Morgan-2011]
    Glutamatergic neurons in rodent models respond to nanoscale particulate urban air pollutants in vivo and in vitro.
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18349428 [Solt-2008]
    Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults.
  15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3759935/ [Lavicoli-2013]
    The Effects of Nanomaterials as Endocrine Disruptors.
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25988990 [Bernatsky-2016]
    Fine particulate air pollution, nitrogen dioxide, and systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease in Calgary, Alberta.
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27453791 [Brennan-2016]
    Long-term ambient particle exposures and blood DNA methylation age: findings from the VA normative aging study.
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27539004 [Chao-2017]
    Exposure to PM2.5 causes genetic changes in fetal rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus.
  19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27321041 [Ambroz-2016]
    Impact of air pollution on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in mothers and their newborns.
  20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24911630 [Hamra-2014]
    Outdoor particulate matter exposure and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  21. http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/12/8/9375/htm [Herndon-2015]
    Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health
  22. http://nuclearplanet.com/frontiers1.pdf [Herndon-2016]
    Human and Environmental Dangers Posed by Ongoing Global Tropospheric Aerosolized Particulates for Weather Modification.
  23. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/027868201753306714 [Cheng-2010]
    Chemical Composition of Aerosols from Kerosene Heaters Burning Jet Fuels.

License

Copyright (C) 2012-2017 Etienne Robillard

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document Under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".



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"Now let us consider another kind of drug – still undiscovered, but probably just around the corner – a drug capable of making people feel happy in situations where they would normally feel miserable. Such a drug would be a blessing, but a blessing fraught with grave political dangers. By making harmless chemical euphoria freely available, a dictator could reconcile an entire population to a state of affairs to which self-respecting human beings ought not to be reconciled. Despots have always found it necessary to supplement force by political or religious propaganda. In this sense the pen is mightier than the sword. But mightier than either the pen or the sword is the pill. In mental hospitals it has been found that chemical restraint is far more effective than strait jackets or psychiatry. The dictatorships of tomorrow will deprive men of their freedom, but will give them in exchange a happiness none the less real, as a subjective experience, for being chemically induced. The pursuit of happiness is one of the traditional rights of man; unfortunately, the achievement of happiness may turn out to be incompatible with another of man's rights – liberty." - Aldous Huxley
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