User:Allison Murk/Notebook/Biology 210 at AU/2016/01/13

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Lab 6: Embryonic Development & Zebrafish Experiment, February 17th, 2016

Embryonic Development


Figure 1. Chart comparing embryonic development across species

Zebrafish Experiment Set-Up

We are testing the effects of epinephrine on the zebrafish. 24 zebrafish embryos were placed in 2mLs of the control, and 24 zebrafish embryos were placed in 2mLs of the epinephrine treatment. We hypothesize that if the zebrafish embryos are exposed to epinephrine, they will have a different behavioral pattern and increased heart rate.

Day 1: 24 hours old, 4-8 somites stage

Day 3: 11 of the control embryos were replaced and 1 of the experimental embryos was replaced -- all marked

Lab 5: Berlese Funnel Invertebrate Observations & Vertebrates, February 10th, 2016

Analyzing Invertebrate Samples from the Berlese Funnel


Figure 1. Description of 5 invertebrates observed

Majority of the organisms were microscopic, with the exception of the two inch earthworm. The first, higher, sample contained an abundant amount of ant-like organisms, but nothing else. The lower level has more diversity among organisms, but none of the ant-like organisms from the top.

Vertebrates and Niches

Vertebrates that would live in transect 2 are the American Robin, the Cardinal, the Mourning Dove, the Sparrow, and the Tree Squirrel.

American Robin - Chordata Aves Passeriformes Turdidae Turdus T. migratorius

Cardinal - Chordata Aves Passeriformes Cardinalidae Cardinalis C. Cardinalis

Mourning Dove - Chordata Aves Columbiformes Columbidae Zenaida Z. macroura

Sparrow - Chordata Aves Passeriformes Passeridae Passer P. domesticus

Tree Squirrel - Chordata Mammalia Rodentia Sciuridae Sciurini

All of these vertebrates would be attracted to the creek that runs through the transect fro water, as well as the tall trees, bushes, and general shubbery that birds and squirrels typically live in. In addition, there are other invertebrates such as worms that birds feed from and acorns from the trees for squirrels.


Figure 2. Proposed food web for transect 2

The entire ecosystem in the transect makes up a community with different trophic levels and carrying capacities. The bottom trophic level-- the plants-- have a much larger carrying capacity than higher up trophic levels such as the birds because energy is lost as it climbs up the trophic levels.

Lab 4: Transect 2 Plant & Fungi Observations, February 3rd, 2016

Collecting & Analyzing the Plant Samples

Transect 2 was flooded due to the rain, and the temperature was 48F. Five plant samples were collected around the transect.


Figure 1. Five plant samples collected from transect 2

All the plants sampled were angiosperms.


Figure 2. Observed plant characteristics

Fungi Observations

Sporangia are important to fungi reproduction since they are where spores form.


Figure 3. Drawing of observed fungi

This is a mushroom because it has hyphae, and mushrooms are are a member of basidiomycota.

Lab 3: HIC Observations & Microorganism Observations, January 27th, 2016

Hay Infusion Culture Observations

After the second week the Hay Infusion Culture has continued to decay. The water level has lowered by about an inch, and the water appears clearer, however the top of the water is more crowded with debris. The smell continues to smell like death and decay, and the jar appears to have grown some mold. If the microorganisms in the water continue to breakdown the debris in the water, then the smell and appearance will continue to change. Archaea will not be present in the Hay Infusion or on the agar plates because the conditions are not extreme enough.

Microorganism Observations


Figure 1. Table showing amount of bacterial colonies

The plates without antibiotic grew quite well, whereas the plates with tetracycline grew quite poorly indicating that this antibiotic was successful in killing the bacteria. The tetracycline drastically reduced the colonies on the first dilution plate, and rendered the other three plates completely clear of bacterial growth which means the tetracycline was almost 100% effective against all the bacteria in our sample. A few types of bacteria were present in the non-tetracycline plates that were not observed on the first tetracycline plate indicating that they were more susceptible to the antibiotic than those that were able to grow. Tetracycline prevents bacteria like E. coli.,Streptococcal pneumoniae, and Bacillus anthracis from protein synthesis because bacterial ribosomes are unable to interact with aminoacycle-tRNA (Chopra & Roberts, 2001).


Figure 2. Observations from the four sampled bacterial colonies


Figure 3. Sampled bacterial colony drawings at 40x magnification


Chopra, I., & Roberts, M. (2001). "Tetracycline Antibiotics: Mode of Action, Applications, Molecular Biology, and Epidemiology of Bacterial Resistance." Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 65(2), 232–260.

Lab 2: Hay Infusion Culture Observations & Serial Dilutions, January 20th, 2016

Hay Infusion Culture Observations

After 1 week the Hay Infusion appeared relatively the same as the first week with the exception of a thin film coating the top of the water and some possible mold growth. The water was murky and filled with the debris from last week. Despite the lack of difference in appearance, the smell drastically changed. The Hay Infusion had the smell of rot and extreme bacterial growth. If the Hay Infusion were to be left for two more months, I would expect more growth, but selective factors such as the amount of nutrients would start to become more apparent.


Figure 1. Drawings of protists observed from the Hay Infusion Culture

From the bottom of the jar, near the dirt, colpidium (70um), paramecium (35um), and peranema (30um) were found. A sample from top of the jar contained volvox (440um), and didinium (100um), and vorticella (50um) were found from a sample near a leaf. All the observed organisms were motile protists. The samples near the leaf are more readily provided nutrition from the leaf and therefore contain more organisms.

Paramecium meet all the requirements of life for energy, cells, information, replication, and evolution. Paramecium obtain energy from dead plant matter. They are also single-celled organisms with macronuclei for processes such as digestion and protein synthesis. Paramecium have genetic information that is conserved after replication by binary fission or sexually by conjugation which is an evolution to sexual dimorphism.

Serial Dilution


Figure 2. Diagram of serial dilution concentrations

Lab 1: Examining a Transect at AU, January 13th, 2016

Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to observe a 20 x 20 ft transect on AU's campus, and to collect samples from the transect to be used in a Hay Infusion. Our hypothesis for the Hay Infusion is that there will be organism growth.

Materials and Methods: For this lab our group observed transect 2. We gathered various samples of the water, dirt, leaves, and other items in the transect into a plastic bag to be used in the Hay Infusion. Lists of the abiotic and biotic factors was made, as well as pictures taken of the area and an aerial drawing. Once in the lab, the Hay Infusion was performed by adding 10.4g of transect debris along with 500mL of Deerpark water and 1g of dried milk to a labeled, clear, plastic container.This container was then shaken thoroughly and left with the lid off in the sun for one week.

Data and Observations: The weather was wind and cold, but sunny with a temp of 28F. Transect 2 is located near Hughes Hall and has a sloped topography with its lowest point being a small stream. Abiotic factors include the water in the stream, the rocks, the trash, the soil, and the irrigation control box. Biotic factors found in the transect include the organisms living in the water in the stream, the plant bulbs, the trees, the shrubs, and the squirrels.


Figure 1. Aerial Drawing of transect 2.


Figure 2. Panoramic view of transect 2.


Figure 3. Picture of water area of transect 2.

Conclusions and Future Directions: No conclusions can be drawn from this lab yet because the Hay Infusion is incomplete. When observing the Hay Infusion results this week, conclusions can be made.